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Glossary of knowledge bowl- grammar

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Created by awelton09

Verbal
Based on verb
Gerund
Verbal ending with 'ing' and acting as a noun. (The police arrested him for SPEEDING, my cat's favorite activity is SLEEPING, TRAVELING might satisfy your desire for new experiences).
Gerund phrase
Gerund + modifiers/objects/complements (usually doesn't require punctuation). (Her favorite tactic is LYING TO HIS CONSTITUENTS, 'lying to'=gerund, 'his constituents'= direct object).
Participle
Verbal used as an adjective, usually ends in -ing or -ed. ("the CRYING baby fell asleep", the BURNED log was black).
Present participle
Participle ending in 'ing' (The CRYING baby had a wet diaper).
Past participle
Participle ending in -ed, -en, -d, -t, or -n. (SHAKEN, he walked away from the WRECKED car).
Participial phrase
Participle and modifiers/pronouns/noun phrases that function as objects/complements (REMOVING HIS COAT, Jack rushed to the river, removing = participal, his coat=direct object) . Must be placed as close as possible to the nouns/pronouns they modify. Sometimes set off with commas.
Infinitive
Verbal (word "to"+ verb) (TO WAIT seemed foolish, Everyone wanted TO GO, His ambition is TO FLY).
Infinitive phrase
Group of words of infiinitve and modifiers/pronouns/noun phrases that function as actors/objects/complements. (We intended TO LEAVE EARLY, 'to leave' is the infinitive, 'early' is the adverb').
Regular/Irregular Verbs
3 parts: root, simple past, and past participle. Both simple past and past participle have -ed added to the end. Irregular verbs don't follow this pattern.
Appositive
Pronoun/noun set beside another noun/pronoun to explain it.
Count/noncount nouns
Count nouns can be expressed in plural form (ie, cat), but noncount nouns cannot (air).
Relative Pronouns
that, who, whom, whose, which, where, why, when. Used to join clauses to make a complex sentence.
Defining (restricting) relative clauses
Provide crucial info that explains the main clause.
Non-defining (non-restrictive/parenthetical) relative clauses
Provide additional, nonessential info about a main clause.
Articles
A, an, the- precede a noun/noun phrase.
Prepositions
Work with nouns/pronouns to modify verbs, nouns, or adjectives. Convey spatial, directional, or temporal meaning. (Ivy climbed UP the walls of the house).
Conjunctions
Join 2 clauses or independent sentences together. But, so, and, or...
Active voice
The subject of the sentence performs the action expressed in the verb.
Passive voice
The subject is acted upon.
Simple present tense
They walk
Present perfect tense
They have walked
Simple past tense
They walked
Past perfect tense
They had walked
Future tense
They will walk
Perfect future tense
They will have walked
Coordinating conjunctions
FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)
Subordinating conjunctions
Comes at the beginning of a subordinate (dependent) clause.
Correlative conjunctions
Conjunctions combining with other words. (WHETHER you win this race OR lose it doesn't matter, She led the team NOT ONLY in statistics BUT ALSO in enthusiasm).
Conjuctive adverbs
Create complex relationships between ideas. However, moreover, consequently, etc.
Interjections
Words/phrases that exclaim or protest. (WOW! I didn't see that coming!).

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