Glossary of introducing the human body
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- Anatomy is the study of the structure of body parts
- Physiology is the study of the function of body parts
- All mater consists of elements. These simple substances exist as particles called atoms
- Atoms bond into molecules
- Molecules compse the parts of the cell called organelles
- The cell is the smallest unit displaying the properties of life
- Similar cells function together in a tissue
- Two or more tissue work together in an organ
- Organ Systems
- Organs with related functions are part of the same organ system
- All organ systems make up the organism
- Superior means closer to the head
Inferior means closer to the feet
- Anterior/ Posterior
- Anterior (ventral) refers to a part that is closer to the front of the body.
Posterior (dorsal) refers to a part that is closer to the back
- Medial refers to a part that is closer to an imaginary midline passing vertically through the body.
Lateral refers to a part that is further from this midline.
- Proximal refers to a part of a limb that is closer to the trunk (torso)of the body.
Distal refers to a limb part that is further from the trunk
- Closer to the surface of the body
- further away from the surface of the body
- referring to the wall of a body cavity
- Sagittal Plane
- A sagittal plane passes through the body longitudinally, dividing it into left and right regions. A midsagittal section passes through the midline of the body.
- Coronal (Frontal) Plane
- A coronal plane passes through the body longitudially, dividing it into anterior and posterior regions.
- Transverse Plane
- A transverse plane passes through the body horizontally, dividing it into superior and inferior regions.
- Two main cavities of the human body
- dorsal cavity
- Dorsal cavity consists of
- the dorsal cavity consists of the cranial cavity and spinal cavity
- Ventral cavity consists of
- thoracis and abdominopelvic subcavities
- Pleural cavity
- contains the lungs
- Integumentary System
- The skin and accessory organs comprise the integumentary system protects and regulates body temperature
- Skeletal System
- The skeletal system consists of the bones and articulations (joints). This system provides protection and support
- Muscular system
- The skeletal muscles contract to produce body movements. The muscles also produce body heat
- Nervous System
- The nervous system sends signals throughout the body.
- Endocrine System
- The glands of the endocrine system secrete chemical messages called hormones. These messages regulate processes such as growth and mineral balance.
- Circulatory System
(Circulatory was misspelled - typo) :)
- The circulatory system transports substances to and from the body cells.
- respiratory system
- lungs and conducting tubes
- digestive system
- mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and associated organs
- urinary system
- kidneys and bladder
- circulatory system
- heart and vessels
- lymphatic system
- lymphatic vesses and nodes, spleen and thymus
- Reproduction and development in males
- testes and glands ducts and penis
- female reproductive system
- ovaries, oviducts, uterus, vagina, and external genitalia
- is the maintenance of relatively constant conditons of the internal environment of the body.
- negative feedback
- is a self-regulatory mechanism by which systems and conditions of the body are controlled.
Disease represents an upset in homeostasis
just another typo :o)
- body levels of organization
organ systems, finally the organism
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