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Glossary of health and human dynamics 2

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Ballistic stretching
A technique in which muscles are stretched by the force generated as a body part is repeatedly bounced, swung, or jerked
Exercises role in low-back pain
regular exercise aimed at increasing muscle endurance and strength in the back and abdomen prevents back pain
Essential fat
the fat in the body necessary for normal body functioning
Nonessential fat
extra fat or fat reserves stored in the body
Guidelines to reduce nonessential fat
expend more than you consume
Apples” vs. “Pears” as it relates to chronic diseases
risk of coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and stroke twice as high as people than pears
Explanation to the increase in obesity rates
more time spent in sedentary work and leisure activities, fewer short trips on foot and more by automobile, fewer daily gym classes for students, more meals eaten outside the home, greater consumption of soft drinks and convenience foods.
Macronutrients
essential nutrients required by the body in relatively large amounts
Micronutrients
essential nutrients required by the body in minute amounts
Saturated fat
a fat with no carbon-carbon double usually solid at room temperature
Monosaturated fat
a fat with one carbon-carbon double bond; liquid at room temperature
Polysaturated fat
a fat containing two or more carbon-carbon double bonds; liquid at room temperature
Trans fatty acid
unsaturated fatty acid produced during the process of hydrogenation; trans fats have an atypical shape that affects their chemical activity
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
blood fat that transports cholesterol to organs and tissues; excess amounts result in accumulation of fatty
High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
blood fat that helps transport cholesterol out of the arteries, thereby protecting against heart disease

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