Glossary of female
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- What is the normal age range for menopause to start?
- 40 to 58 years old
- beginning of menstruation
- the age range for menarche?
- 10 to 16 years old, earlier for shorter, fatter girls.
- The average age for menarche is ?
- 12.5 years old or 48kg. (106lbs)
- Would a girl in an undeveloped country begin menarche earlier or later than those in developed counties???
- Earlier. THey would also have earlier menopause
- What could cause irregularities or amenorrhea ?
- Pregnancy, depression, ovarian tumors,
ovarian cysts, autoimmune disease, and hormonal imbalances
- What is premature menopause ?
- menopause before the age of 30 years old.
- What is delayed menopause?
- menopause after the age of 58 years old.
- What could cause premature or postmature menopause?
- generic predisposition, an endocrine disorder, or gynecologic dysfunction.
- 60 % of menopausal women will experience?
- hot flashes and night sweats.
- What symptomes occur with menopause?
- mood swings, decreased appetite, vaginal dryness, spotting, and irregular vaginal bleeding.
- vaginal discharge could indicate
- pain in the area of the vulva, vagina, uterus, cervix, or ovaries, could be a sign of ?
- Itching is a sign of ??
- infection or infestation
- Lumps, swelling, or masses in the genital area could indicate?
- infection, lymphedema, or cancer.
- difficulty urinating ?
- A change in urinary frequency, burning, or pain ?
- infection, urinary tract infection, or sexually transmitted disease.
- Difficulty controlling urine?
- is a sign of incontinence either stress incontinence or urgency incontinence
- Urinary incontinence in older women may develop from what ?
- weakened or loss of urethral elasticity
- What women would benefit from vaginal lubrication before sex.
- older women whose estrogen production is decrease causing vaginal dryness and women who have surgical induced menopause.
- atrophy of the vaginal mucosa is caused by a decrease in what hormone ?
- Decreased estrogen production
- How is infertility defined?
- Unprotected sex for one year without pregnancy.
- What does a pap smear screen for ?
- cervical cancer
- When should a pap smear and pelvic examination be done?
- yearly or at the doctors discretion after 4 consecutive normal results.
- What age should pap smears and pelvic examinations begin?
- 18 years old OR for girls who are sexually active.
- Sexually transmitted diseases can increase a woman's risk for ?
- pelvic inflammatory disease which can cause scarring of the Fallopian tubes.
- Scarred Fallopian tubes increases the risk of?
- Why is it important to know if a client is pregnant?
- in case medications or x-rays need to be prescribed
- diabetes predisposes women to what vaginal infections?
- yeast infection
- IF a client has an occurrence of cancer in her family,where should the nurse focus her attention?
- to the area in which the risk may be present.
- What can increase a woman's risk of cardiovascular disease?
- smoking and taking oral contraceptives.
- what are some minor side effects of oral contraceptives?
- weight gain, breast tenderness, headaches, and nausea.
- Major side effects of oral contraceptives are?
- thromboembolic disorders, cerebrovascular accident, and myocardial infarction,
- What are benign masses on the ovary called?
- Ovarian cyst.
- List five words to describe an ovarian cyst.
- Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)is caused by an ?
- Infection of the salpingitis or Fallopian tubes and ovaries with a sexually transmitted disease.
- What causes extremely tender and painful bilateral adnexal masses????
- Pelvic inflammatory disease
- After collecting all assessment data what would the nurse do next?
- analyze the data using diagnostic reasoning skills
- List some potential complication (PC) in which the nurse would need to refer the client to a doctor?
- Gonorrhea ovarian nodual
Syphilis abnormal pap smear
Chlamydia vaginal bleeding
- Nursing diagnosis = Wellness
- when clients are ready to improve an already healthy situation.
- Nursing Diagnosis (RISK)
- use if a client does not have a diagnosis but data reveals the risk of a problem developing.
- Nursing Diagnosis ( ACTUAL)
- use when a nurse an prevent the complication or provide the primary treatment
- candidal vaginitis (moniliasis) causes what type of discharge?
- thick, white,and cheesy
- At puberty the breast increase in size due to what hormone?
- Elevated sebaceous glands are known as? NORMAL FINDING
- Montgomery's glands
- Where are Montgomery's glands located?
- on the areola
- What is glandular tissue?
- the functional part of the breast that allows for milk production.
- the tissue that provides support for the glandular tissue is known as?
- Cooper's ligaments
- What type of tissue determines the size and shape of the breast?
- Fatty tissue
- What lymph nodes are responsible for the drainage from the arms???
- lateral lymph nodes
- drainage of the arms
- lateral lymph nodes
- Where do most breast tumors occur ?
- upper outer quadrant
- Breast that become lumpy and sore before menstration but getter better after menstration are symptomes of what?
- Fibrocystic breast disease
- A family history of breast cancer
consumption of a high-fat diet
increases a woman's risk for what type of cancer?
- BREAST CANCER
- What do Hispanic Americans associate breast cancer with ?
- physical stress
- What medication can cause a clear discharge from the nipples?
- In males gynecomastia can be the result of the client taking medications for what?
- Breast exams should be performed at what time of the month?
- right after menstruation
- What is Orange-peel is associated with ?
- blocked lymphatic drainage
- Dimpling of the breast could indicate?
- A reddened scar three years after a surgical procedure indicates?
- If a client reports any symptoms what should the nurse do?
- Use COLDSPA to explore the symptoms
- Lumps and swelling of the breast can be associated with?
- benign breast disease, fibroadenomas, or malignant tumors. any lumps and swelling should be further assessed.
- Redness, warmth,retraction, or dimpling of the breast can indicate?
- redness and warmth= inflammation
retraction and dimpling=of nipple or fibrous tissue seen with breast cancer
- A change in size or firmness indicates?
NORMAL in elderly
- inflammation or abnormal growth
- Older clients will have a decrease in what type of breast tissue? And an increase in what type of tissue? What causes the changes?
- a decrease in=size and firmness
a decrease in=glandular tissue
an increase in= fatty tissue
decreased estrogen causes the changes
- Pain and tenderness is a sign of ?
- benign breast disease especially if the client client uses oral contraceptives.
- Breast Pain is associated with?
- late sign of breast cancer
- What should the nurse do if a client reports blood or blood tinged discharge from her nipples?
- M.D. referral A.S.A.P
- what are four medications associated with a clear nipple discharge?
- oral contraceptives, phenothiazines, steroids, digitalis, and diuretic.
- Other than medications what else could be responsible for a clear nipple discharge?
- a frequently stimulated nipple
- How is glandular tissue arranged?
- in 15 to 20 lobes that radiate in a circular fashion from the nipple.
- Where is milk stored within the breast?
- lactiferous sinus
- What tissue determines the functional capability of the breast?
- glandular tissue
- What do the anterior nodes aka pectoral nodes drain?
- anterior chest wall and breast.
- What do the posterior nodes aka subscapular nodes drain?
- the posterior chest wall and part of the arms
- What do the lateral nodes aka bracial nodes drain?
- most of the arms
- What do the central nodes RECEIVE drainage from?
- anterior, posterior,and lateral lymph nodes.
- Risk factors of breast cancer?
early menarche or late menopause
no natural children
wet ear wax
first born child after 30 y.o.
no breast fed babies
- Who has the highest incidence of breast cancer?
- United States and Europe
- Breast tissue changes can be related to?
- aging, trauma, physical abuse, sports injuries.
- two drinks or more a day can increase a woman's risk for
- breast cancer
- Asbestos, radiation, benzene, increases a woman's risk for?
- breast cancer
- Depro Provera and antipsychotic drugs increase the chances of
- persistent mild secretions whether the woman is breast feeding or not
- the purpose of the breast assessment is to?
- identify signs of breast disease and initiate early treatment
- What does the final part of the breast examination involve?
- teaching the client about BSE and having them demonstrate what they have learned.
- If one breast is larger than the other, is this a normal or abnormal finding?
- A prominent venous pattern is caused by what?
- increased circulation due to a malignancy
- an asymmetrical venous pattern indicates?
- IF veins radiate either horizontally and toward the axilla or vertically with a lateral flare would this be a normal or abnormal finding?
- NORMAL. the transverse pattern predominates
- Red, scaly, crusty areas on the areola are indicitive of ???
- Paget's disease.
- What should the nurse do if the client reports a spontaneous discharge from the nipple?
- M.D. REFERRAL for cytologic study
- Supernumerary Nipples
Normal or Abnormal???
- NORMAL should be without discharge.
- What positions are used to test for breast retraction and dimpling?
- raises arms over head
lower them and presses against the hips
presses hands together with finger of the one hand pointing the opposite direction of the other hand
- The texture and elasticity should feel?
- smooth, firm, and elastic
- How do Malignant tumors feel to the nurse?
- unilateral, with irregular, poorly delineated borders. they are hard and non tender and fixed to underlying tissues.
- Describe a fibroadenoma
- 1-5 cm., round or oval, mobile, firm, solid or multiple benign masses in one or both breast.
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