Glossary of female

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What is the normal age range for menopause to start?
40 to 58 years old
beginning of menstruation
the age range for menarche?
10 to 16 years old, earlier for shorter, fatter girls.
The average age for menarche is ?
12.5 years old or 48kg. (106lbs)
Would a girl in an undeveloped country begin menarche earlier or later than those in developed counties???
Earlier. THey would also have earlier menopause
What could cause irregularities or amenorrhea ?
Pregnancy, depression, ovarian tumors,

ovarian cysts, autoimmune disease, and hormonal imbalances
What is premature menopause ?
menopause before the age of 30 years old.
What is delayed menopause?
menopause after the age of 58 years old.
What could cause premature or postmature menopause?
generic predisposition, an endocrine disorder, or gynecologic dysfunction.
60 % of menopausal women will experience?
hot flashes and night sweats.
What symptomes occur with menopause?
mood swings, decreased appetite, vaginal dryness, spotting, and irregular vaginal bleeding.
vaginal discharge could indicate
pain in the area of the vulva, vagina, uterus, cervix, or ovaries, could be a sign of ?
Itching is a sign of ??
infection or infestation
Lumps, swelling, or masses in the genital area could indicate?
infection, lymphedema, or cancer.
difficulty urinating ?
A change in urinary frequency, burning, or pain ?
infection, urinary tract infection, or sexually transmitted disease.
Difficulty controlling urine?
is a sign of incontinence either stress incontinence or urgency incontinence
Urinary incontinence in older women may develop from what ?
weakened or loss of urethral elasticity
What women would benefit from vaginal lubrication before sex.
older women whose estrogen production is decrease causing vaginal dryness and women who have surgical induced menopause.
atrophy of the vaginal mucosa is caused by a decrease in what hormone ?
Decreased estrogen production
How is infertility defined?
Unprotected sex for one year without pregnancy.
What does a pap smear screen for ?
cervical cancer
When should a pap smear and pelvic examination be done?
yearly or at the doctors discretion after 4 consecutive normal results.
What age should pap smears and pelvic examinations begin?
18 years old OR for girls who are sexually active.
Sexually transmitted diseases can increase a woman's risk for ?
pelvic inflammatory disease which can cause scarring of the Fallopian tubes.
Scarred Fallopian tubes increases the risk of?
Why is it important to know if a client is pregnant?
in case medications or x-rays need to be prescribed
diabetes predisposes women to what vaginal infections?
yeast infection
IF a client has an occurrence of cancer in her family,where should the nurse focus her attention?
to the area in which the risk may be present.
What can increase a woman's risk of cardiovascular disease?
smoking and taking oral contraceptives.
what are some minor side effects of oral contraceptives?
weight gain, breast tenderness, headaches, and nausea.
Major side effects of oral contraceptives are?
thromboembolic disorders, cerebrovascular accident, and myocardial infarction,
What are benign masses on the ovary called?
Ovarian cyst.
List five words to describe an ovarian cyst.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)is caused by an ?
Infection of the salpingitis or Fallopian tubes and ovaries with a sexually transmitted disease.
What causes extremely tender and painful bilateral adnexal masses????
Pelvic inflammatory disease
After collecting all assessment data what would the nurse do next?
analyze the data using diagnostic reasoning skills
List some potential complication (PC) in which the nurse would need to refer the client to a doctor?
Gonorrhea ovarian nodual
Syphilis abnormal pap smear
Chlamydia vaginal bleeding
urinary incontinence
Nursing diagnosis = Wellness
when clients are ready to improve an already healthy situation.
Nursing Diagnosis (RISK)
use if a client does not have a diagnosis but data reveals the risk of a problem developing.
Nursing Diagnosis ( ACTUAL)
use when a nurse an prevent the complication or provide the primary treatment
candidal vaginitis (moniliasis) causes what type of discharge?
thick, white,and cheesy
At puberty the breast increase in size due to what hormone?
Elevated sebaceous glands are known as? NORMAL FINDING
Montgomery's glands
Where are Montgomery's glands located?

on the areola
What is glandular tissue?
the functional part of the breast that allows for milk production.
the tissue that provides support for the glandular tissue is known as?
Cooper's ligaments
What type of tissue determines the size and shape of the breast?
Fatty tissue
What lymph nodes are responsible for the drainage from the arms???
lateral lymph nodes
drainage of the arms
lateral lymph nodes
Where do most breast tumors occur ?
upper outer quadrant
Breast that become lumpy and sore before menstration but getter better after menstration are symptomes of what?
Fibrocystic breast disease
A family history of breast cancer

consumption of a high-fat diet

late menopause
increases a woman's risk for what type of cancer?
What do Hispanic Americans associate breast cancer with ?
physical stress
What medication can cause a clear discharge from the nipples?
In males gynecomastia can be the result of the client taking medications for what?
Breast exams should be performed at what time of the month?
right after menstruation
What is Orange-peel is associated with ?
blocked lymphatic drainage
Dimpling of the breast could indicate?
A reddened scar three years after a surgical procedure indicates?
If a client reports any symptoms what should the nurse do?
Use COLDSPA to explore the symptoms
Lumps and swelling of the breast can be associated with?

benign breast disease, fibroadenomas, or malignant tumors. any lumps and swelling should be further assessed.
Redness, warmth,retraction, or dimpling of the breast can indicate?
redness and warmth= inflammation

retraction and dimpling=of nipple or fibrous tissue seen with breast cancer
A change in size or firmness indicates?


NORMAL in elderly
inflammation or abnormal growth
Older clients will have a decrease in what type of breast tissue? And an increase in what type of tissue? What causes the changes?
a decrease in=size and firmness
a decrease in=glandular tissue
an increase in= fatty tissue
decreased estrogen causes the changes
Pain and tenderness is a sign of ?
benign breast disease especially if the client client uses oral contraceptives.
Breast Pain is associated with?
late sign of breast cancer
What should the nurse do if a client reports blood or blood tinged discharge from her nipples?
M.D. referral A.S.A.P
what are four medications associated with a clear nipple discharge?
oral contraceptives, phenothiazines, steroids, digitalis, and diuretic.
Other than medications what else could be responsible for a clear nipple discharge?
a frequently stimulated nipple
How is glandular tissue arranged?
in 15 to 20 lobes that radiate in a circular fashion from the nipple.
Where is milk stored within the breast?
lactiferous sinus
What tissue determines the functional capability of the breast?
glandular tissue
What do the anterior nodes aka pectoral nodes drain?
anterior chest wall and breast.
What do the posterior nodes aka subscapular nodes drain?
the posterior chest wall and part of the arms
What do the lateral nodes aka bracial nodes drain?
most of the arms
What do the central nodes RECEIVE drainage from?
anterior, posterior,and lateral lymph nodes.
Risk factors of breast cancer?
early menarche or late menopause
no natural children
wet ear wax
first born child after 30 y.o.
taller height
no breast fed babies
Who has the highest incidence of breast cancer?
United States and Europe
Breast tissue changes can be related to?
aging, trauma, physical abuse, sports injuries.
two drinks or more a day can increase a woman's risk for
breast cancer
Asbestos, radiation, benzene, increases a woman's risk for?
breast cancer
Depro Provera and antipsychotic drugs increase the chances of
persistent mild secretions whether the woman is breast feeding or not


the purpose of the breast assessment is to?
identify signs of breast disease and initiate early treatment
What does the final part of the breast examination involve?
teaching the client about BSE and having them demonstrate what they have learned.
If one breast is larger than the other, is this a normal or abnormal finding?
A prominent venous pattern is caused by what?
increased circulation due to a malignancy
an asymmetrical venous pattern indicates?
IF veins radiate either horizontally and toward the axilla or vertically with a lateral flare would this be a normal or abnormal finding?
NORMAL. the transverse pattern predominates
Red, scaly, crusty areas on the areola are indicitive of ???

Paget's disease.
What should the nurse do if the client reports a spontaneous discharge from the nipple?
M.D. REFERRAL for cytologic study
Supernumerary Nipples

Normal or Abnormal???
NORMAL should be without discharge.
What positions are used to test for breast retraction and dimpling?
raises arms over head
lower them and presses against the hips
presses hands together with finger of the one hand pointing the opposite direction of the other hand
The texture and elasticity should feel?
smooth, firm, and elastic
How do Malignant tumors feel to the nurse?
unilateral, with irregular, poorly delineated borders. they are hard and non tender and fixed to underlying tissues.
Describe a fibroadenoma
1-5 cm., round or oval, mobile, firm, solid or multiple benign masses in one or both breast.

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