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Glossary of endocrine system - anatomy 101

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the products of the endocrine glands are ___
hormones
steroid hormones are lipid molecules synthesized from ___
cholesterol
all hormones are transported in the body by the ___
blood
estrogen, progesterone, and cortisol are examples of ___
steroid hormones
when nonsteroid hormones interact with cells they may afect the activity of an enzyme called ___
adrenyl cyclase
the pituitary gland lies in the saddle of a sphenoid bone called the ___
sella turcica
the hormones released by the posterior pituitary gland are produced by a portion of the brain called the ___
hypothalamus
another name for the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is ___
adenohypophysis
oversecretion of the human growth hormone during childhood results in ___
gigantism
the thyroid gland is located in the tissues of the ___
neck
in order to produce thyroxin, the diet must contain ___
iodine
insufficient secretion of thyroxin in infants and children can result in a disease called ___
cretinism
an excess of thyroxin can result in a condition known as ___
grave's disease
the hormone TSH is secreted by the pituitary gland and has an effect on the ___
thyroid gland
the hormone that acts on the mammary glands and stimulates the production of milk is called ___
prolactin
one hormone of the posterior pituitary gland acts on the kidney tubules and is called ___
antidiuretic hormone
the hormone whose target tissue is the uterus where it induces contractions is called ___
oxytocin
in the absence of dietary iodine, the thyroid gland swells and produces a condition called ___
goiter
the parathyroid glands are located on the posterior surface of the ___
thyroid gland
parathyroid hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands regulates the body's level of ___
calcium
the calcium-regulating hormoneof the thyroid gland is called ___
calcitonin
the large glandular organ of the abdominal cavity beneath the stomach is the ___
pancreas
diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas produces an insufficient supply of ___
insulin
insulin promotes cell uptake of ___
glucose
when a person has not eaten, the pancreas produces the hormone ___
glucagon
insulin is produced by cells of the pancreas known as ___
beta cells
the adrenal glands may be found on the superior borders of the ___
kidneys
the outer tissue of the adrenal galnd is known as the ___
cortex
aldosterone is an example of adrenal hormones called ___
mineralocorticoids
the metabolism of carbohydrates, protein, and fats is regulated by hormones of the adrenal glands called ___
glucocorticoids
the activity of the adrenal gland is regulated by an anterior pituitary hormone abbreviated as ___
ACTH
An insufficient sevretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex may result in the disease called ___
addison's disease
another name for the parathyroid hormone is ___
parathormone
the hormone insulin is composed exclusively of ___
protein
the function of the hormone glucagon is to stimulate the breakdown of the carbohydrate ___
glycogen
the inner tissue of the adrenal gland is called the ___
medulla
the concentration of electrolytes in the body is regulated by adrenal hormones called ___
mineralocorticoids
an important hormone of the adrenal medulla which functions in the "fight or flight" resonse is called ___
ephinephrine
oversecretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex can result in ___
cushing's syndrome
the corpus luteum of a woman secretes the hormone ___
progesterone
the small endocrine gland located in the midbrain that secretes melatonin is the ___
pineal gland
the thymus gland plays an important role in the development of white blood cells called ___
T-lymphocytes
numberous cells in various organs of the body secrete lipid hormones called ___
prostaglandins
the hormone erythropoetin functions during the maturation of ___
red blood cells
hormones from the ovaries influence the secondary sex characteristics of the ___
female
the hormone that is believed to regulate mating behavior and the day-night cycle is called ___
melatonin
female sex hormones are known as ___
estrogens
the location of the pineal glandis within the ___
brain
the maturation and development of T-lymphocytes is regulated by hormones called ___
thymosins
the hormones gastrin and secretin function in the process of ___
digestion
the products of the body's endocrine glands are:
a)hormones b)enzymes
c)minerals d)ions
A
hormones may consist of all the following except:
a)steroids b)proteins
c)carohydrates d)amines
C
the pituitary gland lies in the:
a)abdominal cavity
b)inferior aspect of the brain c)along the femoral artery d)in the tissues of the neck
B
all the following hormones are produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland except: a0HGH b)TSH
c)prolactin d)insulin
D
the oversecretion of HGH in adults may result in the condition called: a)diabetes mellitus b)acromegaly c)addison's disease d)cushing's disease
B
the neurohypophysis is another name for the: a)posterior lobe of the pituitary gland b)meduall of the kidney c)follicle that secretes estrogens d)placenta
A
in the female body, the luteinizing hormone: a)stimulates TSH production b)regulates mineral metabolism in the body c)stimulates uterine contractions d)acts to promote progesterone production
D
the target tissue of ACTH is the: a)thymus gland b)medulla of the adrenal gland c)cortex of the adrenal gland d)beta cells of the pancreas
C
the hormone responsible for stimulating contractions of the uterus is known as: a)insulin b)UCH c)glucagon d)oxytocin
D
the thyroid gland is located: a)within the brain b)in the lower abdominal cavity c)near the larynx d)behind the spleen
C
in order for the thyroid gland to produce thyroxin: a)iodine must be available b)carbohydrate molecules must be available c)calcium levels must be low d)iron levels must be low
A
symptoms of cretinism include: a)excessive urination and thirst b) electrolyte imbalance in the body c)stunted growth and thickened facial features d)depressed calcium absorption in the digestive tract
C
graves' disease can result from an excess of: a)calcium in the blood b)thyroxin in the blood c)catecholamines in the respiratory passageways d)glucagon in the pancreas
B
Calcitonin and the parathyroid hormone both control the level of : a)pituitary hormones in the blood b)glucose in the blood c)thymosins in the blood d)calcium in the blood
D
the symptoms of diabetes mellitus may include all the following except: a)frequent urination b)excessive thirst c)high glucose content of the urine d)abnormal mineral absorption
D
the hormone antagonistic to insulin is: a)FSH b)glucagon c)vasopressin d)estrogen
B
the parathyroid glands are located close to the: a)pancreas b)lower abdominal cavity c)brain d)larynx
D
in patients with diabetes mellitus: a)insufficient glucose enters the cells b)the medulla of the adrenal gland is damaged c)progesterone is not produced by the placenta d)the hypothalamus in nonfunctional
A
the large endocrine gland located in the abdominal cavity is the: a)pineal gland b)thymus gland c)pancreas d)thyroid gland
C
the two major portions of the adrenal gland are the: a)medulla & cortex b)exocrine & endocrine c)renal & subrenal d) posterior & anterior portions
A
the hormones of the adrenal glands complement the action of the:
a)sensory nervous system
b)central nervous system
c)sympathetic nervous system d)external nervous system
C
the concentration of sodium and potassium ions in the blood and body fluid is regulated by hormones known as: a)glucocorticoids b)androgens c)adrenergic hormones d)mineralocorticoids
D
Hormones that influence the secondary sex characteristics may be produced by both the: a)pancreas and pineal gland b)thyroid and parathyroid glands c)thymus and pituitary glands d)adreanal cortex & reproductive organs
D
melatonin is secreted by the: a)pancreas b)thymus gland c)pineal gland d)pituitary gland
C
the proper functioning of the body's immune system depends in part on the activity of the: a)thyroid gland b)thymus gland c)parathyroid gland d)adreanl gland
B
the hormones gastrin and secretin are made in the linings of the stomach and (kidney)
small intestine
the small endocrine gland located in the center of the (brain) is known as the pineal gland.
true
the development of T-lymphocytes is regulated by hormones known as (mineralocorticoids)
thymosins
secondary male characteristics are influenced by hormones known as (androgens)
true
the (beta) cells of the pancreas are responsible for the production of glucagon.
alpha
the parathyroid hormone acts in a manner that is antagonistic to the activity of (calcitonin)
true
the (adrenal gland) lies in the fold of the mesentaries
pancreas
both thyroxin and triiodothyronine increase the rateof (metabolism) in the body
true
contractions of the uterus may be stimulated by the hormone (vasopressin).
oxytocin
the hormone ACTH is produced by the (adrenal gland), and it regulates the activity of the adrenal cortex.
anterior pituitary gland
the follicle stimulatin hormone is a product of the (posterior) pituitary gland that acts on the ovaries and testes.
anterior
the (anterior) pituitary gland receives and stores hormones from the hypothalamus.
posterior
swelling of the thyroid glands due to a lack of iodine is referred to as (goiter)
true
insufficient secretion of thyroxin in adults may result in a condition called (myxedema)
true
the composition of the hormone insulin is (carbohydrate)
protein
the hormone aldosterone is an example of the (glucocorticoids)
mineralocorticoids
two important catecholamine hormones are epinephrine and (insulin)
norepinephrine
an inadequate secretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex can result in (cushing's) disease
addison's
many of the tissue cells of the body produce lipid hormones called (prostaglandins)
true
the maturation of red blood cells is controlled by the hormone (melatonin)
erythropoetin
the pituitary gland lies in a saddle of the (ethmoid) bone
sphenoid
another name for human growth hormone is (somatotropin)
true
the hormone prolactin stimulates the production of (urine)
milk
the thymus gland is located in the tissue of the (leg)
thorax
glucagon and insulin are both hormones produced by the (pancreas)
true

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