Glossary of ed 34 midterm

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small muscle developmt
developmt of dexterity of the fine muscles of the hand
large muscle developmt
developmt of motor sills such as running or throwing which involves the limbs and large muscles
emergent literacy
knowledge & skills relating to reading that children usually develop from experience with books & other print media before the beginning of formal reading instruction in school
whole language
educational philosophy that emphasizes the integration of reading, writing, & language & communication, skills across the curriculum in the context of authentic or real life materials, problems and tasks
people who are equal in age or status
prosocial behaviors
actions that show respect & caring for others
solitary play
play that occurs alone
parallel play
play in which children engage in the same activity side by side, but with very little interaction or mutual influence
associative play
play that is much like parallel play, but with increased levels of interaction in the form of sharing, turn-taking, & general interest in what others are doing
cooperative play
play in which children join together to achieve a common goal
readiness training
instruction in the background skills & knowledge that prepare children for formal teaching later
compensatory preschool programs
programs are designed to prepare disadvantaged children for entry into kindergarten and 1st grade
early intervention programs
compensatory preschool programs that target very young children at the greatest risk of school failure
self concept
a person's perception of his/her own strengths, weaknesses, abilities, attitudes, & values
self esteem
the value each of us places on our own characteristics, abilities and behaviors
social comparison
the process of comparing oneself to others to gather & to evaluate & judge one's abilities, attitudes and conduct
developmtal stage at which a person becomes capable of reproduction
the tendency to analyze oneself & one's own thoughts
intelligence quotient
IQ: an intelligence test score that for people of average intelligence should be near 100
multiple intelligences
in gardner's theory of intelligence, a person's & separate abilities: logical/mathematical, linguistic, musical, naturalist, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, inter/intrapersonal
learning styles
orientations for approaching learning tasks & processing info in certain ways
field independence
cognitive style in which separate parts of a pattern are perceived & analyzed
field dependence
cognitive style in which patterns are perceived as a whole
aptitude-treatmt interaction
interaction of individual differences as in learning with particular teaching methods
language, abilities, ways of behaving, and other aspects of life that characterize a group of people
socioeconomic status
SES: a measure of prestige within a social group that is most often based on income and education
ethnic group
a group within in a larger society that sees itself as having a common history, social & cultural heritage & traditions, often based on race, religion, language, or national identity
a history, culture, & sense of identity shared by a group of people
visible genetic characteristics of individuals that cause them to be seen as members of the same broad group(african, asian, caucasian)
minority group
an ethnic or racial group that is a minority within a broader population
language minority
in the U.S., native speakers of any language other than english
limited english profiecient
LEP: possessing limited mastery of english
english as second language
ESL: subj taught in english classes and programs for students who are not native speakers of english
bilingual education
instructional program for students who speak little or no english in which some instruction is provided in the native language
multicultural education
education that teaches the value of cultural diversity
content integration
teachers' use of examples, data, and other info from a variety of cultures
knowledge construction
helping students understand how the knowledge we take in is influenced by our origins & points of view
prejudice reduction
a critical goal of multicultural education; involves developmt of positive relationships & tolerant attitudes among students of different backgrounds
equity pedagogy
teaching techniques that facilitate the academic success of students from different ethnic & social class groups
empowering school culture
a school culture in which the institution's organization & practices are conducive to the academic & emotional growth of all students
gender bias
stereotypical views & differentiated treatmt of males and females, often favoring one gender over the other
general aptitude for learning, often measured by the ability to deal with abstractions & to solve problems
language disorders
impairmts in one's ability to understand language, or to express ideas in one's native language
emotional & behavioral disorders
exceptional characterized by problems with learning, interpersonal relationships, & control of feelings & behavior
conduct disorders
socioemotional & behavioral disorders that are indicated in individuals who for ex. are chronically disobedient or disruptive
a category of disability that signicantly affects social interaction, verbal & nonverbal communication, & educational performance
sensory impairmts
problems w/the ability to receive info though the body's senses
vision loss
degree of incorrectable inability to see well
hearing disabilities
degree of deafness; uncorrectable inability to hear well
exceptional intellectual ability, creativity, or talent
acceleration programs
rapid promotion through advanced studies for students who are gifted or talented
enrichmt programs
programs in which assignments or activities are designed to broaden or deepen the knowledge of students who master classrm lessons quickly
special education
programs that address the needs of students with mental, emotional, or physical disabilities
Public Law 94-142
federal law enacted in 1975 requiring provision of special education services to eligible students
individuals w/disabilities education act
IDEA: P.L. 101-476, a federal law enacted in 1990 that changed the name of P.L. 94-142 & broadened services to adolescents w/disabilities
IDEA '97
public law 105-17, enacted in 1997 to reauthorize the IDEA(P.L. 101-476) & add provisions for greater parental & classrm teacher involvemt in the education of students w/special needs
least restrictive environment
provision in IDEA that requires students w/disabilities to be educated w/nondisabled peers to the maximum extent appropriate
learners w/exceptionalities
any individuals whose physical, mental or behavioral performance is so different from the norm-either higher or lower-that additional services are needed to meet the individuals' needs
the limitation of a function, such as cognitive processing & physical or sensory abilities
a condition imposed on a person with disabilities by society, the physical environment, or the person's attitude
mental retardation
a condition usually present at birth, that results in below-average intellectual skills & poor adaptive behavior
learning disabilities
LD: disorder that impede academic progress of people who are not mentally retarded or emotionally disturbed
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
ADHD: a disorder characterized by difficulties maintaining attention b/c of a limited ability to concentrate; includes impulsive actions & hyperactive behavior
speech disorders
oral articulation problems, occurring most frequently among children in the early elementary school grades
the temporal, instructional & social integration of eligible children w/exceptionalities w/peers w/o exceptionalities based on an ongoing, individually determined educational planning & programming process
individualized education program
IEP: a program tailored to the needs of a learner with exceptionalities
an adolescent's premature establishmt of an identity based on parental choices, not on his/her own
identity diffusion
inability to develop a clear direction or sense of self
experimental w/occupational & idealogical choices w/o definite commitmt
identity achievemt
a state of consolidation reflecting conscious clear cut decisions concerning occupation and idealogy

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