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Glossary of earth science 05

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what is sea floor spreading?
the theory claiming that the mid-ocean ridge is a huge crack in the earths crust where the hot mantle pushes through and spreads the ocean floor apart.
what is refraction?
the bending of a wave caused by the by the change of speed that occurs when the wave moves from one medium to the other.
what is relitive age?
determining the age of a layer of sedimentary rock, or a fossil in such a layer, by comparing its position to other rocks layers around it.
what is shear?
type of stress where rocks in the earths crust are pushing in different horizontal directions.
i MaDe ThIs A fReE oNe FoR yA!
To GeT tO tHe OtHeR sIdE
what is the richter magintude scale based on?
the amout of shaking caused by an earthquake
name the 3 types of seismic waves caused by an earthquake and describe each one.
p (primary)-the fastest wave. travels by back and forth movement. can travle through water. squeezes and pulls rocks.

s (secondary)- slowest and arrives second at a seismic station. travels up and down. cannot travel through water.

L- most desctrutive type of wave is created when the P and S waves meet at the surface.
parts of a volcanoe
crater- the steep hollowedout area surrounding a cent at the top of a volcanoe.

magma chamber- large pocket of magma

pipe- crack in crust where magma moves.

vent- where the magma emerges out of the vocanoe
the limit to how much stress a material can take
elastic limit
who invented the theory of contenental drift?
alfred wegener
thrust fault
hanging wall moves up in relation to the footwall due to compression
stress
force that act on the rocks of the earth's crust causing movement of the crust or a change in the shape or volume
subduction
when one plate moves under another
seismic wave
shock wave in the earth caused by an earthquake
normal fault
a fault where the hanging wall moves downward in relation to the footwall
prefixes used in SI
measurements unit symbol

kilo- 1,000 k
hecto- 100 h
deca- 10 da
deci- 1/10 d
centi- 1/100 c
milli- 1/1000 m
micro- 1/1000000 u
density=
mass
----
volume
SI Based units
measure unit/symbol

length meter/m
mass kilogram/kg
area spuare meter m2
volume liter/L
tempature degrees cel.
time seconds/s
moho
boundary between the earths crust and mantle
true or false istosatsy balances 2 forces
true
fissure
large crack in the earth resulting from an earthquake
independent variable
changes the dependent variable
infer
to make a conclusion based on availiable data
geological time
time scale of the history of the earth and its life

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