Glossary of definitions: bioscience terms

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the removal of a small piece of living tissue from an organ or part of the body for microscopic examination

A noise, heard with the aid of a stethoscope, that is generated by turbulent blood-flow within the heart or blood vessels.
drug that neutralizes the hydrochloric acid secreted in the digestive juices of the stomach- used to relieve pain/discomfort in disorders of digestive system.
abnormally intense thirst leading to the drinking of large quantities of fluid
condition during which deep tendon reflexes are exaggerated.
aka icterus

yellowing of skin and/or sclerae indicating XS bilirubin in blood

yellow staining of integument (capsule/covering of body eg skin) sclerae and deeper tissues with bile pigments which are increased in serum.
closing off, obstruction of hollow part
a method of separating particles of different dimensions in a liquid mixture using a thin semi-permeable membrane whose pores are too large to allow the passage of large particles (eg proteins) but large enough to permit the passage of dissolved crystalline material.
related to the axilla
the act or state of being stretched
front surface of body

pain or discomfort in lower chest/abdomen after eating and sometimes accompanied by nausea and/or vomiting
deposition of insoluble Ca. hardening of non-cellular material due to Ca deposition
diminished cellular proliferation, hormonal changes, pressure, wasting of tissue
drug used to treat abnormal heart rhythm, angine and hypertension (also taken to reduce anxiety)
reduction of water content

decrease in osmotic potential

loss or deficiency of water in body tissues
deep seated pyogenic infection of several contiguous hair follicles with formation of connecting sinuses. often preceded or accompanied by fever, malaise and prostration
a sinking of spirits leading to a clinically discernible condition
anat. armpit
spread out, not concentrated
chronic enlargement of thyroid gland not due to neoplasm (tumour, abnormal tissue)
bend in organ or structure
excessive development of male mammary glands sometimes secreting milk.

due to hormone imbalance/hormone therapy
protusion of an organ/tissue out of the body cavity in which it normally lies.

enlargement of the normal, spongy, blood filled cushions in the wall of the anus.

varicose veins in the anal canal causing bleeding, pain and sense of incompleteness when defaecating.
high blood pressure

elevation of arterial blood pressure above the normal range expected in a particular age group.

persistent high blood pressure.
dark-field microscopy
method of increasing effective resolving power of microscope by using special condenser to reflect a powerful light source obliquely onto a wet preparation.
Any moving particles scatter light and are seen as brilliant images moving against a dark background.
This is a method of seeing small motile microbes.
computerised tomography

specialised form of X-ray examination where the X-ray source and detector rotate around the object to be scanned and the information obtained is used to produce cross-sectional images by computer.

Higher radiation dose than with X-rays but higher quality of diagnostic information outweighs risk.
white, fibrous outer layer of eyeball excl cornea
the part of the body below the chest, separated from the chest by the diaphragm.
It contains the organs of digestion and excretion (+ ovaries and uterus in female)

Can be divided into 9 sections.
extent to which a sample of blood serum containing antibody can be diluted before losing its ability to cause agglutination of the relevant antigen ie a measure of amount of antibody in serum
pentose sugar involved in carbohydrate interconversions in cells - used as a diagnostic aid for intestinal function.
synthetic small peptide used to test for malabsorption
alkaline phosphatase
an indication of phone deposition. It is an enzyme which liberates phosphates (inorganic) from phosphoric esters.
Usually only found inside hepatocytes
the bursting apart/open of an organ/tissue
feverish, pyrexic, high body temperature

skin discolouration caused by escape of blood from ruptured underlying vessels following injury.
widespread destruction of tissues due to absorption of disease-causing bacteria or their toxins from bloodstream
the passage of abnormally increased amounts of fat in the faeces (>5g/day) due to reduced absorption of fat by the intestine. The faeces are pale, smell offensive, may look greasy and are difficult to flush away.
the production of large volumes of urine
1. describing disease of rapid onset, severe symptoms and brief duration (ie opp chronic)

2. describing any intense symptom eg severe pain
hyperplasia (prostatic)
an increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ excluding tumour formation whereby bulk or part of the organ is increased. (related to prostate gland)
packed cell volume

volume of erythrocytes in the blood expressed as a fraction of the total volume of the blood ie volume RBCs
piercing through the vein usually to withdraw blood or to inject a solution
red bile pigment found as sodium bilirubinate. formed from haemoglobin in normal and abnormal destruction of red blood cells by the reticuloendothelial system.

discomfort or pain, usually burning in character, felt behind the sternum and often appears to rise from abdomen towards/in the throat. May be accompanied by appearance of acid/bitter fluid in mouth.

Usual causes - regurgitation of stomach contents into gullet or oesophagus
technique used to measure antibody levels

chemical processes underlying antigen-antibody reaction involving operation of immune system
inappropriate, involuntary discharge of urine resulting in wetting.
joined together
withdrawal of fluid from the body by means of suction (using an aspirator).
process of listening, usually with aid of stethoscope, to sounds produced by movement of gas/liquid within the body. it is an aid to diagnosis of abnormalities of the heart, lungs, intestines and other organs according to the characteristic changes in sound pattern caused by different disease processes.
a compound capable of producing a condition in which nerve stimuli are perceived but not interpreted as pain (eg paracetamol, aspirin)
slanting, deviating from the perpendicular or from horizontal
alanine amino transferase
a transaminase - enzyme which transfers the amino group between alpha amino acid to a 2-keto acid. usually found only inside hepatocytes.
acid phosphatase
a measurement of prostate and bone cancer - an enzyme usually present in prostate and bone cell cytoplasm
dissection and examination of a body after death in order to determine the cause of disease/the presence of disease processes.
immunometric assay

determination of the presence of a protein through its properties as an antigen or antibody.
use of an endoscope to obtain a view of the interior of the body.

most endoscopes consist of a tube with light at the end and an optical system or a miniature video camera for transmitting an image to the examiner's eye.
a state in which absorption of one or more substances by the small intestine is reduced
immunosuppressive drugs
drugs which act on any part of the immune system so as to interfere with normal reactions to the presence of an antigen. Used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs.
mallory bodies
dense cytoplasmic inclusions (foreign or heterogeneous) contained in a cell - in liver usually due to clumping of cytoskeletal cells
swollen, twisted and distorted vessels, usually veins.

periodic discharge of urine from the bladder through the urethra
collection of fluid in peritoneal cavity
central part of renal glomerulus between capillaries
feeling of being about to vomit - actual vomiting often occurs subsequently
muscle wasting
catabolism of muscle
mild character of disease, non-malignant character of neoplasm
study of the form/ gross structure of the various parts of the human body
a small swelling/aggregation of cells
micro <3mm
macro >3mm
normal colour
of normal cell type/normal size
extract obtained from the pancreas containing the pancreatic enzymes

powdered, defatted and dessicated preparation of raw pancreas derived from hog.
the production of an abnormally small amount of urine
a technique of removing waste materials/poisons from the blood using the principles of dialysis. It is performed on patients whose kidneys have ceased to function.
hormone-like substance which usually causes contractions of smooth muscle. they are also mediators in inflammation and mucus production
preventing disease, an agent that acts as a preventative against disease
a tender, inflamed area of the skin containing pus. infection usually caused by staph. aureus. Development may be encouraged by local injury or lowered constitutional resistance.
transurethral resection
endoscopic removal of the prostate gland or bladder lesions usually for relief of prostatic obstruction or treatment of bladder malignancies.
excessive accumulation of fluid in body tissues
bowel evacuation occurs infrequently/faeces hard and small/bowel movements cause pain.
cancer that arises in epithelium
deprivation to a part of tissue/organ of its blood supply so that an area of dead tissue develops
propagation of microorganisms on or in media of various kinds.
fatty micronodules
area of fat within an hepatocyte which usually suggest acute high alcohol metabolism.
specific gravity
relative density

ratio of density of a substance (at 20 degrees C) to maximum density of water (ie at 4 degrees C).

measurement of SG of urine is a test of urine function
torn or jagged wound
insipient spinal curvature - deformity of the spine characterised by excessive flexion
inguinal hernia
a sac of peritoneum containing fat or part of the bowel bulging thru a weak part of the lower abdominal wall

rupture of abdominal wall between deep epigastric artery and rectus muscle
yellow red pigments widely distributed in plants and animals - precursors to vitamin A
surgical removal of thyroid gland.
In subtotal thyroidectomy 90% removed - method of treating thyrotoxicosis.
enzyme produced by pancreas and glands of small intestine which catabolizes fats into glycerol and fatty acids
abnormally frequent discharge of fluid faecal matter from the bowel
Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

Enlargement of prostate in elderly men
--> obstruction of bladder neck
--> impaired urination
an awareness of the heartbeat

perceptible, forcible pulsations of the heart usually with increased frequency and/or force
enlargement of cavity, canal or blood vessel
process of examining a part of the body by careful feeling with the hands and fingertips
Universal assessment to identify alcoholics

Have people ever Annoyed you by criticising your drinking?

Have you ever felt bad or Guilty about your drinking?

Have you ever felt you should Cut down on your drinking?

Have you ever had a drink first thing in the morning to steady your nerves or to get rid of a hang-over (Eye opener)
material containing cholesterol, degenerate muscle cels, blood clots, platelets and fibrous tissue which forms on the inside of arteries in a disease called atherosclerosis. this promotes thrombosis - obstruction of blood flow.
radiographic examination of bile ducts and pancreas
condition during which number of RBCs per unit volume, the amount of Hb and the volume of packed RBC per unit volume is less than normal. Pertains to conc. of oxygen transporting material per unit volume.
polypeptide hormone liberated by upper intestinal mucosa on contact with gastric contents. Stimulates contraction of gall bladder.
intestinal gas composed partly of swallowed air and partly of gas produced by bacterial fermentation of intestinal contents. Indigestible non-absorbable carbohydrates in some foods can --> increased volmes of flatus.
immunological procedure in which radio-isotope labelled antigen is reacted with specific anti-serum and an aliquant part of the same antiserum previously treated with test fluid. Used as a measure of substance in test fluid.
hormone formed by epithelium of duodenum under stimulus of acid from the stomach. incites secretion of pancretic juice and bile by the liver.
measurement of osmotic pressure calculated by:

molecular weight of solute (g)/ no. of ion particles into which it dissociates in solution.
near surface of body
zone of tissue with impaired function as a result of damage by disease or wounding.
straw-coloured fluid in which blood cells are suspended (consisting of various inorganic ions plus high concn protein and a variety of trace substances)
peritoneal dialysis
the peritoneum is used as an autogenous semi-permeable membrane for dialysis - alternative method by which fluid is run into peritoneal cavity of abdomen through cannula (catheter), allowed to reach equilibrium with blood, and then discharged.
petechial rash (petechiae)
small haemorrhaging spots on skin
reflex action of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth
1)clear watery fluid, esp moistening surface of serous membranes or exuded in inflammation of any of those membranes.

2) fluid portion of blood - fibrin clots and blood cells removed. Similar to plams but lacking coagulants.
endosopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatogram

a catheter is passed through a duodenoscope into the ampulla of vater and injected with a radiopaque medium to outline the pancreatic duct and bile ducts radiologically.

widely used in the diagnosis of obstructive jaundice and pancreatic disease.
area of atheroma around inner linings of arteries
generall antibiotic most effective on gram positive bacteria.
composed of many sacs containing gas, fluid or a semi-solid material with a membranous lining.
increased alveolar ventilation relative to metabolic CO2 production.

breathing at an abnormally rapid rate at rest
--> decreased Pco2 arterial blood
--> dizziness, tingling in lips and limbs, tetanic cramps in hands, tightness across chest
sudden neurological affliction usually related to cerebral blood supply more usually thrombosis, haemorrhage or embolism
histamine analogue and antagonist used to treat peptic ulcers and hypersecretory conditions by blocking histamine receptor sites.
scarring and thickening of tissue/organ by replacement of original structure by simple collagenous fibrous tissue. usually after injury.
conservative treatment
treatment aimed at preventing a condition becoming worse in the expectation that either natural healing will occur or the progress of the disease will be so slowe that no drastic treatment will be justified.
disease or condition arising during the course of, or as a consequence of, another disease.
implantation of an organ/tissue from one part of the body to another or from one person (donor) to another (recipient)
1)a break in the skin extending to all its layers

2) a break in the mucous membrane lining the alimentary tract that fails to heal and is often accompanied by inflammation
rhythmical and alternating movement that may affect any part of the body
enzyme that continues digestion of proteins. secreted by pancreas
a flexible tube for insertion into a narrow opening so that fluids may be introduced or removed.
contraction of heart, esp ventricles by which blood is driven through the aorta and pulmonary artery to transverse systemic and pulmonary circulation respectively.
back surface of body
sudan III
lysochrome (fat soluble dye) predominantly used for demonstrating triglycerides
condition in which liver responds to injury or death of some of its cells by producing interlacing strands of fibrous tissue between which are nodules of interlacing cells.

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