Glossary of culture test 2

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what is the name of the man who calls the faithful to prayer?
the wazum
what areas of influence did Islam affect?
science, math, medicine, western civilization
Do Muslims worship Muhammad?
No, they worship his message from God
When and where was Muhammad born?
570 A.D. on the Arabian Peninsula
Orphaned as a child, where did Muhammad go to live and with whom? What town was he from?
He was from Mecca and he went to live with the Bedouin, specifically his Uncle the chief of his clan.
What is the name for the nomads?
the Bedouin
What place did poets hold in Bedouin society?
most important/respected people because they link tribe to ancestors.
Where were the tribal Gods kept?
in the Kabbah (arabic for the cube)
What was the significance of the Kabbah as a sanctuary?
held sacred black stone that fell from the sky--place of peace for the Bedouin.
What town is the Kabbah in?
The Arabian Peninsula linked the west and east through what?
Trade: Byzantine, Persia, Chinese
What was the name of Muhammad's first wife?
Muhammad was a merchant and a mediator, by what name did he become known as?
"the trusted one" "el amin"
How did the first revelation of God come to Muhammad?
in a cave above Mecca, an Angel vision reciting the Qur'an "there is only 1 God"
How was the Qur'an originally passed along?
stories, by word of mouth-oral tradition but eventually needed written
Why did the tribal leaders decide to oppose Muhammad?
the other prophets had had miracles and the only miracle he had was the Qur'an itself.
Didn't want him taking control.
What year did his uncle and Hadija die?
619 A.D.
What was the name of the refuge for Muhamad and his followers?
622 marks the Muslim year 1. What was the significance of that year?
The Hijra, the journey of the start of Islam of a caravan bound by religion.
What did Yathrib become known as?
"the city of the prophet," Medina
What do Muslims call Christians and Jews?
People of the Book
How many years did the struggle continue?
3 years
What year did Muhammad seize Mecca?
630 A.D.
How many times did Muhammad revolve around the Kabbah destroying the idols?
7 times
How long did it take Islam to spread from Spain to China?
200 years
True or False? As Islam conquered it squashed other religious laws as it spread.
What is Islam's first great work of art?
the Dome of the Rock
What is th ereligious significance of the the Dome of the Rock to Muslims?
built in a city oly to Christians and Jews, the place Ibrahim almost sacrificed his son in Jerusalem.
What year did Muhammad die?
632 A.D.
Who did the Shiites believe was Muhammad's successor?
Ali, his son-in-law and cousin
Who do the Sunni believe was Muhammad's successor?
Abu Bakr, they believe should choose among elders.
Explain the economical and cultural significance of the Hajj.
devotional/ritual unity and equality among all people. Goods/ideas/traders to Mecca.
What was the heart of the Islamic empire in the 8th & 9th century?
What was Baghdad renown for?
architectural achievement (mosques, gardens etc.) center of learning "house of wisdom"
What are 2 reasons Islam produced such advances in math, science, medicine and archeology?
best people/thinkers/philosophers came to Baghdad from all over. Need for science advances and competition for jobs.
Describe Cordoba in the 10th Century.
Center of learning/culture that rivaled Baghdad. "city of light" running h20, street lights,biggest mosques, most prosperous/enlightened.
Describe Europe in the 10th Century.
the Dark Ages
lived in shacks
no running h20
What caused the beginning of the rift between Christianity and Islam?
1009 Egypt leader El Hakem burned down holy bldg. for Christians in Jerusalem.
What year was the first crusader seen in the Islamic Empire?
1095 A.D.
What year did the crusaders reach Jerusalem?
1097 A.d.
July 15 1099
Did the spread of Islam stop with the Crusades?
No, Islam continued to flourish
Who invented the check?
Muslims, could be written in Spain & cashed in India.
Where did the Arabs learn to fold steel?
the Persians taught them
What was the backbone of the Arab wealth?
Textiles (Kashmir, Cotton, Silk)
Who was Saladin?
most famous Muslim. 1187 leader of muslims that defeated the crusaders. Took Jerusalem back.
When did the Mongols take Baghdad?
13th Century. Feb. 10 1258
What did the Mongols bring to Islam?
opened the world, converted and became greatest patrons, transformed Islam. Brought gun powder and new mosques.
The Ottomon Turks began as a nomadic people. Who enlisted them as mercenaries?
Muslim Sultans to fight off the Mongols.
What was the name of the first Ottoman Turkish Warlord?
Osman Bay
How did the capture of Bursa change the Turkish Empire?
enabled them to establish a seat of the gov't-settled down to build empire and set it up as their capital.
What did the Ottomans bring to Islam?
taxation, record-keeping, beauracracy, organization
How did the Sultan avoid feuds from Tribal, provincial, or familial loyalties?
had the army made up of all sorts of people.
What were the Janissaries?
sultan's elite infantry, christian children raised by empire and converted to Islam.
What year was Constantinople conquered and by whom?
Memet the Conquerer, May 9 1453
Salayman was known as the Magnificent for what reasons?
Taking Rhodes/Belgrade. Lawgiver. For Architecture (domed mosques) Refurbished Dome of the Rock. Had magnificent palace in Istanbul.
Who was Sulayman's rival to the east and why?
Safavid Empire, moving into muslim world (shiite) Turkish, Savavites waged Shiite was vs. the Ottoman.
What was significant about Vienna?
would drive dart into the Hapsberg Empire and open the door to the West.
How was Sulayman a tragic figure?
wife and son plotted to overthrow him, put own son to death and wife died shortly after. Best friend Ibrahim murdered by wife. Died trying to take Hungary.

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