Glossary of culinary specialist (baking and terminology)
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- How many ounces are there in 5 gallons?
- 5 x 128 = 640
- Steamers are either 5 lb pressure or 15 lb pressure (high speed) type. When food is steamed at 5 lb pressure, the internal
temperature of the steamer is ___° F. to ___° F. At 15 lb pressure, the temperature is ___° F. to ___° F
- When food is steamed at 5 lb pressure, the internal
temperature of the steamer is 225° F. to 228° F. At 15 lb pressure, the temperature is 245° F. to 250° F.
- To cook by dry heat in an oven, either covered or uncovered.
- To partially cook in deep fat, boiling water or steam.
- To pinch together in order to seal.
- The process by which yeast acts on the sugar and starches in the dough to
produce carbon dioxide gas and alcohol, resulting in expansion of the dough.
During this period, the dough doubles in bulk.
- To work dough by folding and pressing firmly with palms of hands, turning
- To make shallow cuts across top of a food item.
- To cook gently in a liquid just below the boiling point (190° F. - 210° F.);
bubbles will form slowly and break at the surface.
- For sautéing or pan frying, temperature should be between __ F. and __ F.
- For sautéing or pan frying, temperature should be between 300 F. and 365 F.
- What should the temperature of the water be when using active dry yeast in yeast raised product?
- 105-110 degrees is the temperature of the water when using active dry yeast in yeast raised product
- List type of quick breads?
- muffins; pancakes; cookies; pancakes; fritters; cornbread
- What are pastry pie crust made from?
- Flour; Shortening; Salt and Ice water
- What is bleeding?
- -air is released from dough when cutting it
-(cake frosting) when color runs to another color
- What is young dough?
- Under proof
- What is old dough?
- Over proof
- what is gluten?
- Gluten is an amorphous ergastic protein found combined with starch in the endosperm of some cereals, notably wheat, rye, and barley. It constitutes about 80% of the proteins contained in wheat, and is composed of the proteins gliadin and glutenin. Gluten is responsible for the elasticity of kneaded dough, which allows it to be leavened, as well as the "chewiness" of baked products like bagels. It is the glutenins (specifically, high molecular weight glutenins) that are especially critical to gluten quality
- What is the first important step in cake decorating?
- Consistency of icing.
- What is bleached flour?
- Bleached flour is flour that was subjected to flour bleaching agents in order to whiten it (freshly milled flour is yellowish) and give it more gluten-producing potential. Similar effect can be achieved by letting the flour slowly oxidize with oxygen in the air ("natural aging"); however this process is too slow to be commercially viable. Oxidizing agents are therefore employed, most commonly organic peroxides like acetone peroxide or benzoyl peroxide, nitrogen dioxide, or chlorine.
- What is cake flour
- Cake flour is a finely milled flour made from soft wheat. It has very low gluten content, making it suitable for soft-textured cakes and cookies. Higher gluten content of other flours would make the cakes tough.
- What is pastry flour?
- Pastry flour (also called cookie flour or cracker flour) has slightly higher gluten content than cake flour, but lower than all-purpose flour. It is suitable for fine, light-textured pastries.
- What is eclair?
- An éclair is a delicate pastry made with choux paste (cream puff pastry dough). The dough is piped into an oblong shape with a pastry bag and baked until it is crisp and hollow inside. The pastry is traditionally filled with a vanilla pastry cream (crème pâtissière), custard or whipped cream, and usually topped with chocolate icing. Other fillings include coffee- and rum-flavored custard, fruit-flavored fillings, or chestnut purée.
- What is puff pastry?
- Puff pastry (pâte feuilletée) is a light, flaky pastry made from dough of the same name. The dough, which is also called puff paste, contains several layers of butter. Croissants are sometimes formed from puff pastry.
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