Glossary of com midterm ch.9 - ch.14
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- Four objectives of a speech introduction?
- 1. get the attention and interest of your audience
2. reveal the topic of your speech
3. establish your credibility and goodwill
4. preview the body of the speech
- Seven methods to use in introduction to get attention and interestof audience?
- 1. relate the topic to the audience
2. state the importance of your topic
3. startle the audience
4. arouse the curiosity of the audience
5. question the audience
6. begin with a question
7. tell a story
- five tips to prepare audience?
- 1. keep intro brief
2. look for intro materials
3. be creative
4. exact wording after prepared body
5. work out intro in detail, practice till you have it down
- Two major functions of conclusion?
- 1. to let the audience know you're ending the speech
2. to reienforce the audience's understanding of, or commitment to, the central idea.
- Two ways to signal the end of speech.
- 1. Crescendo ending - builds to a zenith of power and intensity.
2. dissolve ending - fading step-by-step to a dramatic final statement.
- Four ways to reinforce central idea in conclusion.
- 1. summarize
3. dramatic statement
4. refer to introduction
- what is a speech preperation outline?
- a detailed outline developed during the process of speech prep. that includes:
- Eight guidelines for speech preperation outline.
- 1. state specific purpose
2. central idea
3. label intro, body, & conclusion
4. consistant pattern of symbolization and indentation
5. state main and subpoints in full sentences
6. label transitions, internal summaries, and internal previews
7. attach bibliography
8. give speech a title
- Speaking Outline?
- brief outline used to jog a speakers memory during the presentation of a speech
- Four guidelines for writing a speaking outline?
- 1. follow the visual framework used in the preparation outline
2. make sure the outline is legible
3. keep the outline as brief as possible
4. give yourself cues for delivering the speech
- denotative vs. connotative meaning
- denotative - dictionary meaning of a word or phrase
connotative - meaning suggested by associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase
- Four criteria for using language effectively in your speeches?
- Appropriateness to the:
- Three tips to use language clearly in your speeches?
- 1. use familiar words
2. choose concrete words
3. eliminate clutter
- Two ways to bring speech to life with vivid, animated language?
- 1. imagery
- Five nonsexist language usages no speaker can ignore?
- 1. avoid generic "he"
2. avoid use of "man" when refering to both men and women
3. avoid steriotyping jobs and social roles by gender
4. avoid identifying personal traits that are unrelated to the topic
5. use names that groups use to identify themselves
- good speech delivery
- convays speakers ideas clearly, interestingly, and without distracting the audience
directness, spontaneity, animation, vocal & facial expressiveness & lively sence of communication
- four types of speech delivery
- 1. manuscript speech
2. reciting from memory
3. speaking impromptu
4. speaking extemporaneously
- manuscript speech
- written out word for word and read to audience
- reciting from memory
- memorized speech
- speaking impromptu
- delivered with little or no immediate preperation
- speaking extemporaneously
- carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes
- Eight aspects of voice usage?
- 1. Volume - loudness or softness
2. Pitch - highness or lowness
3. Rate - speed
4. Pauses - momentary break in delivery
5. vocal variety - changes in volume, pitch, rate
6. pronunciation - accepted standard of sound and rythem
7. articulation - physical production of speech sounds
8. dialect - variety of a language noted by variation of accent, grammar, or vocabulary
- Four aspects of nonverbal communication.
- Personal appearance, movement, gestures, eye contact
- Five steps to follow in practicing your speech delivery?
- 1. go through preperation outline outloud
2. prepare speeking outline
3. practice speech aloud several times
4. polish & refine delivery
5. dress rehersal in conditions as close to ones in class as possible
- Three major advantages of using visual aids in your speech?
- clarity, interest, and retention
- Ten types of visual aids.
- objects, models, photographs, drawings, graphs, charts, video, transparencies, multimedia presentations, the speaker
- Six guidelines for preparing visual aids?
- 1. prepare in advance
2. keep simple
3. make sure they're large enough
4. use fonts that are easy to read
5. limit number of fonts
6. use color effectively
- Seven tips for presenting visual aids.
- 1. Avoid chalkboard
2. display where visable
3. avoid handouts
4. display only when refering to them
5. talk to audience not to Visual Aid
6. explain clearly and concisely
7. practice with your visual aid
- Four types of informatives
- speeches about:
- Five guidelines for informative speaking
- 1. dont overestimate what the audience knows
2. relate subject directly to audience
3. dont be too technical
4. avoid abstractions
5. personalize your ideas
- how to make sure ideas dont go over audience's head's
- 1. clear nontechnical language
2. choose supporting material that is easily related to
3. use visual aids
4. chronological order
5. topical order
6. dont assume the audience knows "common" things, terms, or events
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