Glossary of chpt 1 2
Other Decks By This User
- effector response
- appropriate response of various cells/molecules to recognition of a foreign organism in order to neutralize or eliminate the pathogen.
- memory response
- secondary exposure to foreign organism; more rapid, heightened immune reaction to eliminate pathogen and prevent disease
- state of protection from infectious disease
- a weakened (attenuated) strain of vaccine is injected into organism to confer resistance to later infection
- the liquid, noncellular component of coagulated blood
- fraction of serum that neutralizes toxins, precipitates toxins, and agglutinates bacteria. active molecules in IG fraction: antibodies
- the active molecule in immunoglobulin fraction of serum
- Why call it Humoral Immunity?
- because it's mediated by antibodies which are in the body fluid - serum.
- white blood cells that ingest microorganisms and foreign material.
- Theory of cell-mediated immunity
- cells like phagocytes, not molecules like antibodies in the serum, are responsible for immunity
- Lymphocyte responsible for:
- both cellular and humoral immunity
- foreign material that binds with specific antibody
- clonal selection theory
- -lymphocytes express specific membrane receptors
-specificity is determined before exposure to antigen
-Ag binding to receptor activates lymphocyte - it proliferates.
- Innate Immunity
- first line of defense against infection; less specific immunity.
-components are present prior to infection, for PREVENTION
- Adaptive Immunity
Only starts if there is ANTIGENIC challenge.
-Special property: MEMORY
-Responds to first exposure to Ag in 5-6 days usually.
-Second response is better and faster.
- 4 Barriers of Defense in Innate Immunity
- Anatomic barriers of Innate immunity
-mechanical barrier (epidermis, dermis)
-acidic pH bars microbial growth (sebum)
-line conjunctivae, alimentary, respiratory, urogenital tracts
-mucus traps foreign particles.
-cilia moves them out.
-normal flora outcompete pathogens for attachment sites.
- hairlike protrusions on bacterium that allow them to adhere to glycoproteins/lipids on particular epithelial cells of mucous membranes.
-method of defeating innate immunity
- Physiologic barriers of innate immunity
-Body temp inhibits some pathogens
-Fever response does too
-Stomach acid kills ingested pathogens
-Lysozyme, Interferon, Complement, TLR, Collectins
- Phagocytic/endocytic barriers of innate immunity
- Cells endocytose/break down foreign macromolecules.
Special phagocytic cells kill and digest whole microorganisms.
- Inflammatory Barrier of Innate Immunity
- Tissue Damage or Infection induces leakage of vascular fluid which contains antibacterial serum proteins and phagocytic cells.
- cleaves peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell wall; part of innate immunity, physiological barrier
- produced by virus-infected cells to induce antiviral state
- serum proteins circulating in inactive state.
When activated, damage membranes of pathogenic organisms.
-Collectins are an example
- Pattern recognition
- -ability to recognize a given class of molecules.
-for innate immunity, these are molecules that are never found in eukaryotes so must be foreign.
- Phagocytosis in Innate Immunity is conducted by:
- Blood Monocytes, Neutrophils, Tissue Macrophages.
- primary lymphoid organs
- provide the right environment for lymphocytes to develop and mature in
- secondary lymphoid organs
- trap antigen from defined tissues/vascular spaces; The sites where adult lymphocytes interact with the antigens.
- white blood cells
- the leukocytes of adaptive immunity.
- HSC (hematopoietic stem cell)
- the cell that gives rise to all blood cells!!!
- stem cells
- cells that can differentiate into other cell types; multiply by cell division
You must Login or Register to add cards