Glossary of child development 2

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amniotic sac
fluid-filled, transparent protective membrane surrounding the fetus
any environmental agent that can cause deviations in prenatal development. Consequences may range from behvioral problems to death. alchol drugs toxin etc.
apgar scale
measures five vital signs: heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex responsivity and color. Each vila sign is scored 0,1, or 2 based on the criteria described in chart
cause by a parasit found in mayn mammals and birds. Humans come into contact with it in cat litter or eating raw or uncooked meat
med given for morning sickness and reducing anxiety. Deformaties of the limbs, depending on time of exposure, often accompanied by mental retardation
Fetal Alcohol syndrome
exhibit retardation or learning difficulties along with other behavioral problems one in every one hundred births in the US displays FAS
brain lateralization
Process by which one hemisphere of the brain comes to dominat the other, for example, processing of language in the left hemisphere or of spatial information in the right hemisphere.
rhythmical stereotypies
Repeated sequences of movements, such as leg kicking, hand waving, or head banging, that havae not apparent goal.
support organ formed by cells form both blastocyst and uterine lining; serves as exchange site for oxygen, nutrients, and waste product.
Plasticity of the brain
the ability for the brain and individual neurons within those regions, to take on different functions as a result of experience.
Cephalocaudal development
Pattern in which organs, sytems, and motor movements near the head tend to develop earlier tan those near the feet
concordance rate
Percentage of pairs of twins in which both members have a a specific trait identifies in one twin
Proportion of variability in the phenotype that is estimated to be accounted for by genetic influences within a known environmental range.
dizygotic twins
fraternal twins two eggs one sperm
display among other physical and behavioral characteristic, short stature, obesity, and mild to moderate mental retardation
genotype in which tow alleles of gene are identical, thus having the same effects on a trait
genotype in which tow alleles of a gene are different. The effects on a trait will depend on how the two alleles interact
total genetic endowment inherited by an individual
observable and measurable characteristics and traits of an indiviual; aproduct of the interaction of the genotype with the environment
gene expression
Large segment of nucleotides within a chromosome that codes for the production of proteins and enzymes underlie traits and characteristics inherited from one generation to the next.
alternate form of a specific gene; provides a genetic basis for many individual differences.
chromosomal abnormalities
Angelman Syndrome
display disturbances in gait suggestive of marionette like movements, epilepsy and more sever learning difficulties, including minimal or no speech
Williams Syndrome
Dominant genetic dosorder involving the deletion of a set of genes that result in affected individuals typically having a strong social orientation, good musical ability, and some unusual capabilities; accompanied by mental retardation and severe deficits in numerical and spatial ability.
cystic fibrosis
thickening of the mucus lining in the respiratory tract that interferes with breathing. common autosomal recessive disorder. dominant recessive relationship between alleles.
sickle cell Disease
a genetic blood disorder common in regions of Africa and other areas where malaria is found and among descendents of the people of these region. Abnormal blood cells carry insufficient oxygen
concept that the development of some attributes is governed primarily by the genotype and only extreme environmental conditions will alter the phenotypic pattern for these attributes.
range of reaction
Range of phenotypic differences possible as a result of different environments interacting with a specific genotype
passive links
correlation between genotype and environment is labeled as passive, because it has been created for the child by the parents
evocative links
occurs when aspects of the environment, particularly other people, support or encourage behaviors that may have a genetic component; that is, other people's behavior occurs in response to or is evoked by the gehild's genotype.

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