Glossary of chemistry unit two part one vocabulary
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- A theory proposed by John Dalton in 1808, based on numerous scientific experiments, that marked the beginning of the development of modern atomic theory.
- Dalton's Atomic Theory
- The smallest particle of an element that retains all the properties of that element; is electrically neutral, spherically shaped, and composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons.
- A negatively charged, fast-moving particle with an extremely small mass that is found in all forms of matter and moves through the empty space surrounding an atom's nucleus.
- The extremely small, positively charged, dense center of an atrom that contains positively charged protons, neutal neutrons, and is surrounded by emptry space through which one or more negatively charged electrons move.
- A subatomic particle in an atom's nucleus that has a positive charge of 1+.
- A neutral subatomc particle in an atom's nucleus that has a mass nearly equal to that of a proton.
- the weighted average mass of the isotopes of that element.
- atomic mass
- atoms of the same element with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
- the number after an element's name, representing the sum of its protons and neutrons.
- mass number
- a particle with two protons and two neutrons, with a 2+ charge; is equivalent to a heliem-4 nucleus, can be represented as α, and is emitted during radioactive decay.
- alpha particle
- a high-speed electon with a 1 charge that is emitted during radioactive decay.
- beta particle
- High-energy radiation that has no electrical charge and no mass, is not deflected by electric or magnetic fields, usually accompanies alpha and beta radiatino, and accounts for most of the energy lost during radioactive decay.
- gamma rays
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