Glossary of chem test

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formula unit
simplest unit indicated by the formula of any compound - smallest ration of ions
the mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atoms to give new orbitals of equal energies
non-polar convalent bond
a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms , with a resulting balanced distribution of electrical charge
forces of attraction between polar molecules
ionic bond
the chemical bond resulting from electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions
How metallic bonds contribute to metal's physical properties- conductivity, malleability, ductility, and luster
the high electrical conductivity is provided by the motion of the free electrons through the solid, malleability and ductility is formed because they are easy to work and form into desired shapes, and the luster is because of the ability to absorb and re-emit light of many wavelengths. This occurs in metals because electrons in the electron sea have a wide range of possible energies.
covalent bond
a chemical bond resulting from the sharing of electrons between two atoms
how an ionic bond forms using orbital notation
hydrogen bonds
the intermolecular attraction between a hydrogen atom bonded to a strongly electronegative atom and an unshared pair of electrons on another strongly electronegative atom.
London dispersion forces
intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles and induced dipoles
relationship betw. bond energy and bond length
inversely proportional; bond length is the average distance between two bonded atoms, bond energy is the energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral atoms. BOND ENERGIES BECOME LARGER AS BOND LENGTHS BECOME SHORTER.
exceptions to octet rule
BORON - stable with 6, BERYLLIUM- 4, PHOSPHORUS- 10 (sometimes), SULFUR- 12 (sometimes)
VSEPR theory
states that electrostatic repulsion between the valence-level electron pairs surrounding an atom causes pairs to be oriented as far apart as possible
Ionic vs covalent properties
covalent- shares electrons, bonds with nonmetals, O2, H2O, CO2, H2, C12 H22 O11, low elecronegativity difference
IONIC- transfers electrons, metals and nonmentals, CaO, AgNO3, NaI, high electronegativity difference
covalent bonds: stability and potential energy
The relationship between potential energy and the distance between two hydrogen atoms. The separate atoms approach each other from right to left, and a bond forms at the distance of minimum potential energy.
Lewis structures
formulas in which atomic sumbols represent nuclei and inner-shell electrons, dot pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent electron pairs in covalent conds, and dots adjacent to only one atomic symbol represent unshared electrons; bracket and oxidation # for polyatomic ions
double bond can be put in more than one place in Lewis structure
polar covalent
a covalent bond in which the united atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons

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