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Glossary of chem 103 test two chapter 7

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solution
a homo mix of two or more substances in which the components are present as atoms, molecules or ions
solvent
the substance present in a solution in the largest amount
solute
one or more substances present in a solution in amounts less then that of the solvent
dissolving
a term used to describe the process of solution formation when one or more solutes are dispersed in a solvent to form a homo mix
soluble substance
a substance that dissolves to a significant extent in a solvent
insoluble substance
a substance that does not dissolve to significant extent in a solvent
immiscible
a term used to describe liuids that are insoluble in each other
solubility
the max amount of solute that can be dissolved in a specific amount of solvent under specific conditions of temp and pressure
saturated solution
a solution that contains the max amount possible of dissolved solute in a stable situation under the prevailing conditions of temp and pressure
supersaturated solution
an unstable solution that contains an amount of solute greater then the solute solubility under the prevailing conditions of temp and pressure
hydrated ion
an ion insolution that is surrounded by water molecules
a solute will not disolve in a solvent if_________, _______
1. the forces between solute particles are too strong to be overcome by interactions with solvent particles.
2. the solvent particles are more strongly attracted to each other then to solute particles
3 ways to increase dissolving rate
1. crushing or grinding the solute
2. heating the solvent
3. stirring or aggitating the solution
endothermic equation
solute
+ solvent
+ heat
__________ (equals)
solution
exothermic equation
solute
+ solvent
__________ (equals)
solution
+ heat
concentration
the relationship between the amount of solute and the specific amount of solution in which it is concentrated
molarity (M)
a solution concentration expressed in terms of the number of moles of solute contained in a liter of solution

moles of solute
M=_____________________
liters of solution
percent
a solution concentration that expresses the amount of solute in 100 parts of solution

part
%=__________ x 100
total
weight/weight percent
a concentration that expresses the mass of solute contained in 100 mass units of solution
weight/volume percent
a concentration that expresses the grams of solute contained in 100ml of solution
volume/volume percent
a concentration that expresses the volume of solute contained in 100 volumes of solution
electrolyte
a solute that when disolved in water forms a solution that conducts electricity
nonelectrolyte
a solute that when dissolved in water forms a solution that does not conduct electricity
colligative property
a solution property that depends only on the concentration of solute particles in solution. Including vapor pressure, and boiling and freezing point
osmotic pressure
the hydrostatic pressure required to prevent the net flow of solvent through a semipermeable membrane into a solution
osmosis
the process in which solvent flows through a semipermeable membrane into a solution
osmolarity
the product of "n" and "M" in the equation pi=nMRT
colloids
a homo mix of two or more substances in which the dispersed substances are present as larger particles then are found in solutions
dispersing medium
the substance present in a colloidal dispersion in the largest amount
dispersed phaze
the substance present in a colloidal dispersion in amounts less then the amount of dispersing medium
tyndall effect
a property of colloids in which the path of a beam of light through the colloid is visable because the light is scattered
emulsifying agent
(stabalizing agent)
a substance that when added to colloids prevents them from coalescing and setting
dialyzing membrane
a semipermeable membrane with pores large enough to allow solvent molecules, other small molecules, and hydrated ions to pass through
dialysis
a process in which solvent molecules, other small molecules and hydrated ions pass from a solution through a membrane

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