Glossary of chapters 1-10 review

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what is chemistry?
Chemistry is the study of the composition of substances and the changes that substances undergo.
what is organic chemistry?
study of essentially all substances containing carbon. It was originally the study of substances from living organisms.
What is Inorganic chemistry?
specializes in substances without carbon.
what is analytical chemistry?
It's concerned primarily with the composition fo substances.
what is physical chemistry?
Physical chemistry specializes in the discovery and description of the theoretical basis of the behavior of chemical substances.
what is the scientific method?
it incorporates observations, hypothesis, experiments, theories and laws.
What are hypotheses?
Hypotheses are descriptive models for observations.`
what is a theory?
it is a thoroughly tested model that explains why experiments give certain results. It can never be proven.
A scientific Law is a...
it is a concise statement that summarizes the results of a broad variety of observations and experiments. Scientific law, unlike theories, only describes it instead of explaining it.
what is matter?
matter is anything that takes up space and has mass.
The amount of matter that an object contains is its
A substance is a particular kind of matter that has a
uniform and definite composition.
a physical property
is a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance's composition.
is a matter that has a definite shape and volume. They expand slightly when heated and are almost incompressible.
is a form of matter that flows, has a fixed volume, and takes the shape of its container. They are generally less dense than solids, expand slightly when heated and are almost incompressible.
describes a substance that, although in the gaseous state, is generally a liquid or solid at room temperature.
physical change
will alter a substance without changing its composition.
consists of a physical blend of two or more substances.

there are heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures.
a solution is a ____ mixture
are any part of a system with uniform composition and properties.

For example vinegar and oil dressing is a heterogeneous mixture with two phases.
is when a liquid is boiled to produce a vapor that is then condensed again to a liquid.
ARE THE SIMPLEST FORMS OF MATTER that can exist under normal laboratory conditions. They cannot be further separated by chemical reactions.
Compounds are
substances that can be separated into simpler substances only by chemical reactions
energy is
capacity for doign work.
Radiant energy
energy by light.
potential energy
the energy of position.
kinetic energy
the energy of motion.
which is energy that is transferred from one body to another because of a temperature difference.
conservation of energy
energy is neither created nor destroyed.
a chemical reaction is when
one or more substances are changed into new substances
conservation of mass
it is the law that states that in any physical or chemical reaction, mass is neither created nor destroyed, it is conserved.
Quantitative measurements
usually in numbers
qualitative measurements
usually in description and nonnumerical form.
Accuracy vs Percision
Accuracy: How close it is to the real value

Precision: How reproducible it is.
Significant numbers
refer to book. (the answer cannot be as precise as the least precise number)
Mass is not weight, mass is a
A kilogram is
the mass of 1L of water at 4* C
Density is
Specific gravity equation is
density of substance (g/cm^3)
divided by density of water (g/cm^3)

It can be measured with a hydrometer.
Heat transfer occurs when
two objects at different temperatures contact each other.
1 calorie is the amount of heat that raises the temperature of
1 g of pure water 1* C.
Joule vs Calorie
1 J= 0.239 cal and

1 cal= 4.18 J
The heat capacity if an object is
the quantity of heat required to change an object's temperature by exactly 1* C.
Specific heat formula
heat/mass x change in temp (c)
dimensional analysis
is using the units that are a part of the measurements to help solve the problem.
An atom is the smallest
particle of an element that retains the properties of that element.
The idea of an atom was first suggested by
Democritus of Abdera
Dalton's atomic theory
all elements are composed of tiny indivisible particles called atoms.
Atoms of the same element are identical.
atoms of different elements can combine with one another in simple whole number ratios to form compounds.
chemical reactions occur when atoms are separated, joined, or rearranged.
Sir Joseph J. Thomson experienced with...
cathode rays. Using magnets to deflect cathode rays.
What did Sir James Chadwick do?
He confirmed the existence of another subatomic particle, the neutron.
An atomic mass unit (1 amu) is defined as
1/12 the mass of a carbon atom that contains six protons and six neutrons.
In the same element, there are isotopes which means
the proton is the same but the nucleus varies.
the atomic mass number is the
weighted average of all the masses of the isotopes of that element.
ions are
atoms or groups of atoms that have a positive and negative charge.
cations are
any atom or group of atoms with a positive charge.
anions are
atoms or groups of atoms with a negative charge.
a molecule is a
neutral group of atoms that act as a unit.
compounds that are composed of molecules are called
molecular compounds.
Ionic compounds are composed of
positive and negative ions.
a formula unit is the
lowest whole number ratio of the ions in an ionic compound.
compounds that give off OH- ions when dissolved in water are known as
In the formula of an ionic compound the cation is
always written first.
when do we use prefixes in naming binary molecular compounds?
if they're both nonmetallic substances.
Acids are compounds that
give off hydrogen ions when dissolved in water.

hydro-(stem)-ic Acid

(stem)-ous acid

(stem)-ic acid
mole also known as Avogadro's number
6.02 x 10^23
1 mole of gas at STP
(standard temperature and pressure) 22.4L
Describe a combustion reaction
oxygen reacts with another substance to produce carbon dioxide and water. If it lacks oxygen, it might create carbon monoxide, a sign of incomplete combustion.
the kinetic theory says that the
tiny particles in all forms fo matter are in constant motion
what does it mean for gases to have perfectly elastic collisions?
when energy is transferred from one particle to another during collision while remaining a total and constant kinetic energy.
the average kinetic energy of the particles of a substance is ____ to the temperature of the substance.
_____ is a result of simultaneous collisions of billions upon billions of gas particles on an object
gas pressure
____ results from the collisions of air molecules with objects
atmospheric pressure
__ are commonly used to measure atmospheric pressure
at 1 atm, in mmHG it is
in 1 atm, kPa is
101.3 or .1013 in Pa.
Avogadro's hypothesis
equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles.
rate of evaporation is equal to
rate of condensation
the Boiling point is when the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is
equal to the external pressure.
amorphous solids
lack an ordered internal structure (soot, rubber, plastic, asphalt, even glass, though it's sometimes called supercooled liquids.)
A phase change occurs whenever the physical state of a
substance, changes.
what is sublimation?
the change of a substance from a solid to a gas or vapor without passing through the liquid state.
heat of fusion
is the heat required to melt one gram of a solid at its melting point
the heat of solidification
is the amount of heat given up as one gram of liquid changes to a solid at the melting point.
the heat of vaporization
the number of calories required to change 1 g of a liquid to a gas at the boiling point at atmospheric pressure.
the heat of condensation is
the heat released when 1g of a gas condenses to a liquid at the boiling point.
diffusion is
tendency of molecules and ions to move toward areas of lower concentration until the concentration is uniform throughout the system.
occurs as a gas escapes through a tiny hole in a container of gas.
when two bodies of a different mass move at the same kinetic energy
the lighter body moves faster.

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