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Glossary of chapter 6-10,13 review

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Why is it important to draw from your own knowledge and experience when gathering information for your speeches?
You can bring your speech alive, and brings color and emotion to the speech.
What are 5 important resources for finding what you need in the library?
1. Librarian
2. Catalogue
3. Periodical data bases
4. Newspapers
5. Reference works
What are the differences amoung search engines, metasearch engines, and virtual libraries?
A search engine searches using a word or phrase, metasearch engines search multiple search engines and virtual libraries combine internet technology with traditional library methods
How can you use search engines, metasearch engines and virtual libraries to find information systematically on the internet?
key word searches and subject searches
What are 3 major criteria for evaluating the soundness of research materials that you find on the web?
1. Authorship
2. Sponsorship
3. Recency
What are the 3 stages of interviewing?
1. Before
2. During
3. After
What should you do as an interviewer in each stage to ensure a successful interview?
BEFORE
a. define purpose of interview
b. decide who to interview
c. arrange interview
d. decide if record
e. prepair questions
DURING
a. dress appropriately and be on time
b.repeat the purpose of interview
c. set up recorder if using
d. keep interview on track
e. listen carefully
f. don't overstay welcome
AFTER
a. review notes asap
b. transcribe your notes
Why is it important to start your speech research early?
avoid problems and have time to think about your research and decide how to put speech together
What is a preliminary bibliography?
a list of sources used while researching speech
Why is a preliminary bibliography helpful to you when researching a speech?
you can return to sources quickly
What five things should you do to take research notes efficiently?
1. take plenty of notes
2. record notes in consistant format
3. make seperate entry for each note
4. distinquish amoung quotations, paraphrasing, and your own words
5. use index cards if writing by hand
Why do you need supporting materials in your speeches?
help clarify, reinforce and personalize ideas
What are three kinds of examples discussed in chapter 7?
1. Brief
2. Extended
3. Hypothetical
How might you use each kind of example to support your ideas?
BRIEF: in passing, to illistrate a point
EXTENDED: telling a story, narrative, or anecdote to illistrate a point
HYPOTHETICAL: imaginary or ficticious situation
What are 5 tips for using examples in your speech?
1. Clarify your ideas
2. reinforce your ideas
3. personalize your ideas
4. make examples vivid and richly textured
5. practice delivery to enhance extended examples
Why is it so easy to lie with statistics?
Numbers can be easily manipulated and distorted.
What 3 questions should you ask to judge the reliability of statistics?
1. Are they representative
2. Are measures used correctly
3. Are they from a reliable source
What are 6 tips for using statistics in your speech?
1. Quantify your ideas
2. Use sparingly
3. Identify the source
4. Explain statistics
5. Round off complicated stats 6. Use visual aids to clarify statistical trends
What is testamony?
Quotation or paraphrase to support a point
Explain difference between expert, and peer testimony.
EXPERT: people recognized as experts in field
PEER: people with first hand experience or insight on a topic
What are 4 tips for using testimony in your speeches?
1. Quote or paraphrase accurately
2. Use qualified sources
3. Use unbiased sources
4. Identify people you quote or paraphrase
Why is it important that speeches be organized clearly and coherently?
Allows you and your listeners to see what ideas you have and to put mental "hands" on the important ones
How many main points will your speeches usually contain?
Three to five
Why is it important to limit the number of main points in your speeches?
The audience will have trouble sorting too many out
What are 5 basic patterns of organizing main points in a speech?
1. Chronological
2. Spatial
3. Casual
4. Problem solution
5. Topical
Which patterns of organization are appropriate for informative speeches?
Chronological, Spatial, Casual, Topical
Which pattern of organization is used only in pursuasive speeches?
Problem solution
Which pattern of organization is used most often?
Topical
What are 3 tips for preparing your main points?
1. Keep main points seperate
2. Try to use same pattern of wording for each main point
3. Balance the amount of time devoted to main points
What is the most important thing to remember when organizing supporting materials in the body of your speech?
Organizing supporting materials so they are direcly relevant to the main points they are supposed to support.
What are the 4 kinds of speech connectives?
1. Transitions
2. Internal previews
3. Internal summaries
4. Signposts
What roll does each connective play in a speech?
TRANSITIONS: help transition from one main point to the next
INTERNAL PREVIEWS: give the listener a preview of whats next
INTERNAL SUMMARIES: summarize what has already been talked about
SIGNPOSTS: indicate exactly where you are in the speech
What are four objectives of a speech introduction?
1. Get attention and interest of audience
2. Reveal topic
3. Establish credibilty and goodwill
4. Preview body of speech
What are seven methods you can use in the introduction to get the attention and interest of your audience?
1. Relate topic to audience
2. State importance of topic
3. Startle audience
4. Arouse curiosity
5. Question the audience
6. Begin with quotation
7. Tell a story
Why is it important to establish your credibility at the beginning of your speech?
The audience will be more interested in the speech when they realize the speaker knows what they are talking about.
What is a preview statment?
A statment in the introduction of a speech that identifies the main points to be discussed.
Why should you nearly always include a preview statment in the introduction of your speech?
Provide a smooth lead in to the body of the speech.

Signal that the body of the speech is about to begin.
What are 5 tips for preparing your introduction?
1. Keep introduction relatively brief.
2. Look for introductiory material while researching
3. Be creative when preparing introduction
4. Don't worry about exact wording of introduction until finished prepairing body of speech
5. Work out your introduction in detail
What are the major functions of a speech conclusion?
1. Let the audience know you are ending the speech
2. Reinforce the audience's understanding of or commitment to the central idea.
What are 2 ways you can signal the end of your speech?
1. Through what you say
2. Through your manner of delivery
What are 4 ways to reinforce the central idea when concluding your speech?
1. Summarize your speach
2. End with quotation
3. Make a dramatic statment
4. Refer to introduction
What are 4 tips for prepairing your conclusion?
1. Keep an eye out for possible concluding materials as you research and develop
2. Conclude with a bang, not a wimper.
3. Don't be long winded
4. Don't leave anything in your conclusion to chance
Why is it important to outline your speeches?
An outline helps you make sure that related items are together, that ideas flow from one to another, that the structure of your speech will stand up.
What are the 8 guidelines discussed in chapter 10 for writing a preparatiton outline?
1. states specific purpose of your speech
2. identify central idea
3. label introduction, body, conclusion
4. use consistant pattern of symbolization and identation
5. state main points and subpoints in full sentances
6. label transitions, internal summaries, and internal previews
7. attach a bibliography
8. give your speech title, if desired
What is a speaking outline?
A brief outline used to jog a speakers memory during presentation of speech
What are 4 guidlines of your speaking outline?t
1. follow visual framework used in preparation outline
2. make sure outline is legible
3. keep the outline as brief as possible
4. give yourself cues for delivery
What are the major advantages of using visual aids in your speech?
Primary advantage: clarity
Other advantages: interest and retention, enhance almost every aspect of a speech
What kinds of visual aids might you see in a speech?
1. objects
2. models
3. photographs
4. drawings
5. graphs
6. charts
7. videos
8. transparencies
9. multi-media presentations
10. speaker
What guidelines are given in chapter 13 for prepairing visual aids?
1. prepair visual aids in advance
2. keep simple
3. make sure large enough
4. use fonts that are easy to read
5. limit number of fonts
6. use color effectively
What guidelines are given in chapter 13 for presenting visual aids?
1. avoid using chalkboards
2. display where listeners can see them
3. avoid passing amoung audience
4. display only while discussing them
5. talk to audience, not to visual aid
6. explain clearly and concisely
7. practice with your visual aids

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