Glossary of chapter 5 and 6

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who were the etruscans?
-the etruscans migrated to Italy from Asia Minor in 600BC.
-the Romans adopted many ways of the Etruscans such as their alphabet which the Etruscans got from the Greeks. The Romans also adopted their styles of art and worshipped many of their gods. They adopted their building styles such as the arch, too.
who were the patricians?
-patricians were the top class
-they had the most rights and were in charge of the government
-they were also the only people who were allowed to serve in the army at first, eventuallly the plebeians were allowed to too
-the patricians were known as the wealthy land owners
who were the plebeians?
-plebeians were known as the common people farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders
-the plebeians did not have many rights in the beginning. they were citizens and could own land but they could not marry a patricians and could not take part in the governmant or sere the army.
-the plebeians eventually could serve n the army and were required to
-the government was made up of soldiers so plebeians could eventually have some say in the government. they were part of the assembly of tribunes. this assembly elected 10 tribunes to speak for all of the plebeians. at first the tribunes had no say in anything but this soon changed.
-oveer the next 200 years they were allowed to marry patricians, have more rights and have more say in the government
what were legions?
-the roman army was divided into groups called legions that consisted of 6,000 soldiers and these legions were divided up into smaller groups so that they could move around easily
what were the twelve tables?
-the twelve tables was Rome's first written code of law
-the twelve tables were carved into twelve stone tablets and were set up in the forum
-they were written in 461 BC
-they stated the strict difference between the rights of the patricians and the plebeians. they were soon changed thought because the plebeians thought that the amount of rights they had was not fair and they wanted more rights
who was jupiter?
-jupiter was an etruscan god that the romans worshipped
-he was idetnified with the greek god of zues
who was mars?
-mars was originally a roman god of the fields
-he became the god of war during the centuries of roman conquests
what was booty?
-"booty" is money and treasure
what was tribute and what were its effects om Rome both immediate and longterm?
-tribute was forced payment
-rome had a tribute of grain from conquered areas
-this resulted in the lowering of the grain price
-the low prices hurt farmers who couldn't lower their grain prices because they needed the money so many farmers were forced to sell their farms to pay debts
-at the same time a new class of romans grew rich from war booty
what was latifundia?
-latifundia was the land bough from small farmers and were made into large estates
-this land was made by the new class of romans who had gotten rich of war "booty"
with who and when were the 1st and 2nd triumverates?
-a triumverate is a three-man commission
-the 1st triu,verate happened when caesar and pompey formed an alliance with marcus lucius crassus
-this happened in 60BC
-this triumverate gaind control of Rome but was oon split up into rivalries
-the 2nd triumverate happened after caesars assasination when octavion formed an alli9ance with 2 of his commanders mark antony and marcus lepidus
-this happened in 44BC
what was the pax romana?
-the pax romana started in 27 BC when an efficient stable government ensured peace and allowed the roman government to grow in wealth and power
-during the time of 27BC and 170AD rome became an international city. its population grew ot nearly 1 million people.
-during this time trade and commerce flourished
-not everything that happened during this time was beneficial. the difference between the rich and the poor became much more noticable
-slaves were used alot during this period. some of the time slaves were treated like property not people but some slaves even owned land.
-theeconomy suffered also becasue rome imported more goods and exported less and he price of goods were becoming highly over priced which is known as inflation
-augustus started the pax romana
-during the pax romana punishments were less severe
-christianity started during the pax romana
-he romans never set up an effective way for one emperor to suceed another emperor. normally the emperor's son or adopted son would take the throne and the senate would approve the new emperor but after marcus aurelius died this system ended along with the pax romana
what were tribunes?
-tribunes were ten people elected to speak of the plebeian interests
what were aqueducts?
-aqueducts were built to carry water from reservoirs in the country to the cities
-they were built canal-like stone structures that tunneled through mountains and spanned valleys
-they were built high above ground so that they could not be infected with disease and help spread disease more quicly throughout the cities
what was a consul?
-each year the senate would elect two consuls or officials from their own class to administer the laws of rome
what does it mean to veto something?
-to veto somethign means to block
who was hannibal?
-hannibal led an army on a winter march from spain to northern italy. he used african war elephants to carry the heavy equipment but all but one of the elephants died during the journey
-roman legions rushed north but hannibal defeated them
-this happened during the first punic war
-in the second punic war hannibal's troops roamed across italy and destroyed many towns.
-at he battle on zama hannibal was defeated.
-hannibal was the son of the general hamilcar
who was caesar?
-caesar was known as a talented young general to pompey
-caear had won many victories in spain
-he resented the senate and had hoped to be elected for consul in 61 BC but the senate blocked his bid for power
-caesar and pompey formed an alliance with marcus lucius crassus and their alliance is known as the first triumverate
-this alliance soon fell apart when pompey allied himself with the senate fearing caesar's power
-in 49BC the senate ordered him to disband his armies and return to rome but he refused which brought him closer to seizing power in rome
-caesar then crushed an army lead by pompey
-he won many vistories in the middle east and was appointed dictator for life
-many people in the senate were jealous by his popularity in rome and they ended up stabbing caesar to death
who were octavian-augustus?
-octavian was caesars adopted grandnephew and heir
-he formed the second triumverate with mark antony and marcus lepidus
-this alliance lead to a power struggle between antony and octavian
-octavian defeated antony and cleopatra in 31BC and the war was started because octavian feared that antony and cleopatra were going to try and gain power
-the senate renamed him augustus
-augustus restored peace in rome
-he started htte pax romana in 27BC
-under his power rome became and empire
-he turned rome into a more sophisticated city
who was mark antony?
-mark antony was part of the second triumverate
-he married the queen of eqypt, cleopatra, and went to war with octavian but antony was defeated after many long battles
-he was also one of caesars cheif commanders
who was cleopatra?
-cleopatra was the queen of egypt and married mark antony
-she and antony were defeated in a battle against octavian
who was pompey?
-pompey was a general
-he disbaned his army when the senate refusedto approve land grants for his soldiers and he went looking for allies and found julius ceasar
-they both formed an alliance with marcus lucius crassus and this formed the first triumverate
-pompey eventually allied himself with the senate because he feared caesars power
what were the effects of the germanic and hun invasions?
-some of the effects of the germanic and hun invasions were that Rome was defeated and that many countries in eastern europe were conquered
-there were also some countries in northern africa that were also conquered
How did geography influence Rome?
-rome i seperated into eastern and western rome by the apennines
-the western part of rome is much more fertile than the eastern side. also, the western side had many more ports and ways of trade
-the western side had many rivers such as the po and the tigris rivers and these rivers gave the romans food and transportation
-because rome waws located pretty far inland, rome suffered far less sea raids and because the rivers were narrow, big ships could not travel using them
what were the punic wars? who? why?
-the punic wars were a series of wars fought to gain control of the western mediterrainean. they were between rome and carthage
-the first punic war started in 264BC and went on for 23 years. Rome ended up winning and carthage sought revenge
-the second punic war started in 218BC with hannibal's march during the brutal winter. hannibal defeated the first group of roman's they came across and continued farther into rome. hannibal was forced to turn around and defend carthage when a roman army landed in north africa. hannibal was defeated at the battle of zama and was forced to give spain to rome but it was not over yet.
-the third punic war lasted only 3 years and the romans totally destroyed the city of carthage and the people of carthage were either massacred or sold into slavery. carthage became the roman province of africa
what were caesars reforms to strengthen rome?
-caesars reforms wee meant to strengthen rome and protect his own power
-he distributed land to the poor and granted citizenship to people in the provinces outside italy. this helped unite the empire.
-to reduce unemployment he began many building projects
-he increased pay for soldiers and moved to end corruption in provinces
-he also introduced a new calender besed on hellenistic astronomy
what were augustus' reforms?
-augustus sponsered many reforms to strengthen the empire
-he reorganized the army into a highly disciplined, proffessional body, loyal to the emperor
-he encouraged former soldiers to settle in the provinces where they could bolster local defense
-he continued to grant citizenship to people in the provinces
-these reforms helped restore confidence in rome
who was diocletian and what were his reforms?
-diocletian was a general who was made emperor
-to restore government efficiency he reorganized the civil service and made officials directly responsible to the emperor
-he enlarged the army and trained new cavalry units to fight invaders
-he had new forts and raods built to reinforce the frontier defenses
-he slowed the rapid rise in prices and he set limits in prices and wages
-he also started the"law of succession"
who was constantine and what were his reforms?
-constantine became the new emperor after diocletian died
-he ordered officials to enforce the harsh laws tying artisans to their trades and farmers to their land
what were the greco-roman acheivments?
-when the romans developed a system of law, this was considered one of their greatest acheivments
-one of the laws was that judges could base their decisions only on evidence presented in court
-as rome expanded they came up with 2 sets of laws: civil laws and law of nations
-they gave rights to women and slaves
-they built strong bridges supported by arches
-they designed roads to last forever (this system was used as recently as 100 years ago)
-they also built aqueducts
-they wrote a 37-volume encyclopedia on astronomy, nedicine, geography and botany
-roman sculptors copied many greek scuptors
-romans created more realistic portraits
-they also produced beautiful paintings on the walls of people's homes
-the romans designed beautiful mosaics
-they invented the domed roof
-they also built huge stadiums such as the colosseum
what led to the end of the pax romana?
-the death of marcus aurelius lead to the end of the pax romana
-normally after the emperor died his son would take the throne and the senate would approve of the new ruler but after he died this system broke down
-civil wars were fought to see who would become emperor and wihin the next 50 years there were at least 26 emperors
how did christianity develop and what were its effects?
-christianity developed from the jewish beliefs
-jesus's teachings were rooted in hebrew religious traditions
-christians believed in one god (monotheism) and refused to worship the emperor. The romans excused the jews from worshipping the emperor because or their ancient traditions but the romans saw the christians as trouble makers
-rome decided to persecute the christians if they refused to worship the emperor. this strengthened rather than weakened the religion. some people renounced their faith during times of intense persecution but many became martyrs. martyrs believed that they would get special respect from god for dying for their faith. this lead to many more people converting to christianity because of the loyalty that people had to their faith.
when and how did rome fall?
-rome fell after a germanic cheif, odacer, captured rome and forced the emperor to give up the throne
-the western empire was conquered but the people still spoke latin and enforced roman laws but in 476AD, there was no emperor. they struggled to keep the unity of the roman empire and eventually it ended over 1,000 years after the capture of rome
what was the battle of cannae?
-the battle of cannae started on august 2, 216BC in the apulian plane
-the battle was between the romans and the numidians
what happened at the battle of actium?
-it happened during the second triumverate
-this battle resulted in the rise of the first roman emperor
-it was a battle between octavian and mark antony
-octavian won the battle and caused antony to retreat
what was republic?
-all citizens with the right to vote choose their leaders
-the elected leaders represented the people and rule in their name
-the roman republic lasted for 500 years during which time rome grew from a small city-state into a world power

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