Glossary of chapter 49 circulation
- Summarize the structure and the functions of the cardiovascular system
- The heart and the blood vessels make up the cardiovascular sysstem. Together the blood is the major transport sys of the body bringing the 02 and nutrients to the cells and remove the waste.
- what is the Function & the of the heart?
- The heart serves as the system pump ,moving blood thorough the vessels to the tissue.
- what is the structure of the heart?
- Heart is cone shaped organ about the fist size. has 4 chambers and 4 layers.
- differentiate the epicardium and the pericardium ?
- Epicardium: is outer most double layer of the heart .
Paricardium is the double layer memeberane .
- how myocarium is differ from the endocardium?
- the mycardium is the cardiac muscle cells the form the bulk of the Heart and contract on each heartbeat.
endocardium is the inner most layer of the heart.
- Name the four chambrs of the heart.
- Two upper chambers are Atria and two lower chambers are Ventricles.
- Define the crdiac cycle(Systolic )?
- Systolic:when each heart beat ejects the blood into the pulmonary and and systamitc circulations
- What is the Diastolic ?
- Diastolic is when the ventricles fill with blood .
- Explain the following:
Automaticity, SA node ,AVnode
- Autmaticity: the unique property of the heart.
SA Node: The primary peacemaker of the heart.
AV Node: slighlyt delying the transmission of the impulses to the ventricles
- What does the Cardiac Output Stroke Volume means?
- Cardiac Output: is the amount of the blood pumped by the ventricle per minute.
Stroke Voulme: the amount of the blood ejected with each contraction times the heart rate.
- Identify the factors that influance the Cardiovescular Funtion
- NONModiefiable factors
Herdity, Age , Gender (Womens risk increase after post menopuase)
Modifiable : elevated serum lipd level,HTN(hypertension)
smoking, diabetes, obesity,
- what the other factors that influance the Cardiovescular sysstem?
- Heat & cold, previous health status, stress and coping, dietary factors
- Identify common responses to alterations in cardiovascular status?
- 1) Decreased cardiac output.
(MI)myocardial infection/heart attack
signs & symptms: chest pain, nausea,Dyspena,Diaphoresis
2)Heart failure: heart is not able to keep the body's need of 02. It can cause the pulmonary edema.
- Identify common responses to alterations in cardiovescular status
- Impaired Tissue Perfusion : most common cause of blood flow to organs and tiisue,as it narrows the vessels & become obstructed distal tissue receive less blood & 02. and it cause the mycardioal ischemia.(lack of Blood supply due to obstructed circulation).
- --- Continued-----
- Blood alterations: Most o2 is transported to the tissue in combination with hemoglobin, the problems of inadequote RBCs.
- Identify and describe nursing mesures to promote circulation?
- Vascular function:
position to the clent legs to elevated.
Avoid pillows under the knees.
encourage leg excercises to promote the ambulation.
encourage the frequeent position changes.
- Cardiac: position the cclient in a high Fowler's position to decrease preload and reduced pulmonary congenstion.
monitor intake and output.
Medications: many classes of medications are administred to clients with cardiovascular disorders reduced the workload of the herat and prevent the heart disese.
- Identify and describe nursing mesures to promote ciculation?
- Nursing intervenations to promote circulations include using antiembolic stockings and sequential compression devices to prevent the various edema and venous stasis.
- Describe the critical nature of Cardiopulmonary resuscitaion(CPR)?
- CPR; also refered as Basic Life Support. it is a combination of oral resuscitation(mouth to mouth breathing) which supply the 02 to the lungs and external cardiac massage (Chest compressions) which is include to restablish the cardiac function and blood circulation.
- Name the function that can be altered by constions that affect cardiovascular function.
- 1. the function of the heart as pump\2. blood flow to 02 and periphreal tissues
3. the composition of the blood and its ablity to transport 02 and co2.
- Identify the factors that influced the cardiovescular function
- 4.Contracity: strength of contraction.
5) Preload: left ventricular and disatolic volume strech of the mycardioum,
6.Afterload: resistance against which the heart must pump.
- Describe the path blood takes when moving through the heart rate to the circulation.
- vanacava-->right artium-->tricusid valve--> right ventricle-->pulmonic valve-->
pullmonary arteries--> pulmonary veins--> left artium--> mitral valve--> aertic valve--> and the aorta
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