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Glossary of chapter 12 earth's interior

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conduction, p 323
Heat transport by direct transfer of energy from one particle to another, without moving the particle to a new location.
convection, p 323
Heat transport by moving particles, and the thermal energy that they carry, to a new location.
core, p 364
Innermost zone of Earth. Consists of two parts, an outer liquid section and an inner solid section, both chiefly of iron and nickel with about 10 percent oxygen, silicon and sulfur. It is surrounded by the mantle.
crust, p 364
The upper part of the lithosphere , divided into mafic oceanic crust and sialic continental crust.
D" layer, p 371
A region in the lower part of the mantle where P-waves experience a sharp decrease in velocity
discontinuity, p 363
a sudden change with idepth in one or more of the physical properties of the material making up Earth's interior. The boundary between two dissimilar materials as determined by the behavior of seismic waves.
inner core, p 366
The solid innermost part of the core with a diameter of a little over 1,200 km.
lower mantle, p 366
see "mesosphere"
mantle, p 364
That portion of the Earth below the crust and reaching to about 2,780 km, where a transition zone of about 100 km thickness separates it from the core.
mesosphere, p 366
A zone in the Earth between 400 and 670 km below the surface separating the upper mantle from the lower mantle
Mohorovicic discontinuity (MoHo), p 366
The sharp seismic velocity discontinuity separating the crust and the mantle.
outer core, p 366
The outermost part of the core. It is liquid, about 1,700 km thick, and separated from the inner, solid core by a transition zone about 565 km thick.
P-wave shadow zone, p 368
The shadow zone is the area of the earth from angular distances of 104 to 140 degrees that, for a given earthquake, does not receive any direct P waves. The shadow zone results from S waves being stopped entirely by the liquid core and P waves being bent (refracted) by the liquid core.

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