Glossary of ch. 39 of APUSH
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- What did Robert Kennedy in the 1960s set out to alter about the FBI?
- Robert Kennedy set out to recast the priorities of the FBI, which had about 1000 agents deployed on internal security& about a dozen on civil rights violations
- Who was Edgar Hoover? What did Hoover think of Kennedy's attempts in the 1960s to alter the FBI
- Hoover had been the director of the FBI longer than Kennedy had been alive and he resisted attempts to change the FBI
- what was the peace corps and When was it created
- It was created in 1951 as an army of idealistic youth volunteers who would take American skills to underdeveloped countries
- What was the New Frontier and did it succeed?
- In 1960 Kennedy wanted federal aid for education and medical assistance for the elderly. The New Frontier was not particularly successful since Kennedy had been elected on a thin margin which limited his mandate.
- How did Kennedy attempt to keep inflation down
- he negotitated a non inflationary wage agreement in the steel industry. However, steel management increased prices so Kennedy forced them to back down. This was an attack on big business
- Which president advocated a tax cut and a multi billion dollar project to land Americans on the moon
- Kennedy advocated the tax-cut and a project for economic/science stimulus
- when did construction on the Berlin Wall begin?
- construction on the berlin wall started in 1961
- what was the Trade expansion Act (passed in 1962)?
- Kennedy secured the trade expansion act of 1962 which authorized tax cuts of up to 50% to promote trade with comman Market companies (free trade later called the European Union).
- Charles de Gulle was pro-American
- False, Charles de gulle was the president of France who wanted an independent Eur& vetoed Br. application in the Common Market since he feared it would deepen American power over Eur. affairs
- who pushed for "flexible response" and what was it
- Flexbile response meant developing an array of military options.It was supported by President Kennedy and defense secretary, McNamara
- What was the Alliance for Progress
- It was the Marshall Plan for Latin America
- What took place on April 7, 1978
- The Bay of Pigs was 2 remove Castro from power by invading Cuba with anti communist exiles who were trained, armed& supported by Amer. airforce. However, the attempt failed since there was no popular uprising against communism& Castro was driven further into the the Soviet embrace
- In october of 1962 Kennedy ordered a naval quarantine of Cuba, why? What were the results?
- Aerial pics in 1962 showed that Soviets were building nuclear missiles in Cuba& K. ordered the quarantine& demanded removal of the weapons. Krushchev gave in on Oct. 28& was disgraced/removed from power. Also, there was a US program of mil. expansion& Kennedy pushed harder for a nuclear test-ban treaty w/the Soviet Union which was signed in 1963
- How was the national origins- quota system abolished in 1965
- The Immigration and Nationality act of 1965 abolished the National origins system. It meant that 290,000 immigrants could enter annually. It set limits(4 the 1st time) on immigrants from the W. hemisphere to 120,000. It allowed the admission of relatives to US citizens, outside the limits.
- What made passing civil rights legislation so difficult to pass altho Kennedy had promised to eradicate racial discrimination w/the stroke of a pen?
- -he had been elected on a thin margin& had shaky control over congress
-believed the New Frontier would benefit boths blacks/whites
-whites were anti desegregation& some protested violently while S. officials were unwilling/unable to stem the violence
- What happened in 1963 at Birminggam, Alabama that had Kennedy deliver a speech referring to the situation as a "moral issue"
- In 1963 MLK started a campaign against discrimination in Birmingham (most segregated city where blacks made up nearly half the pop. but only 15% of the voters) but was attacked w/dogs, cattled prods& water hoses. This incident disturbed the nation.
- How was the Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed and what did it mean?
- Johnson passed the Civil Rights Act in honor of Kennedy. It banned racial discrimination in most private facilities open to the public. It gave the govt. more power to end segregation in schools& other public places. It created the federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)to eliminate discrimination in hiring
- Who was the Republican candidate in 1964 and what was he against (6 things)
- Barry Goldwater was the Republican candidate in 1964. He was against the tax cut, the Great Society, civil rights legislation, nuclear test-ban treaty, Social security& TVA's
- what was the Tonkin Gulf resolution of 1964
- The lawmakers abdicated their war-declaring powers in 1964 and handed the president a black check to use further force in Asia.
- What happened at the Tonkin Gulf in 1964
- At an allegedly unprovoked attack the North Vietnamese fired at 2 US destroyers. However, we had been cooperating with the S. Vietnamese gunboats in raids. Johnson ordered a retaliatory air raid against the N. Vietnamese bases.
- what new programs/departments were opened in the 60s. Also, who was the first black black cabinet secretary, for one of the departments
2 govt. programs
- -The Department of Transportation
-The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
-Medicare(for the elderly)
-medicaid (aided the poor)
- Johnson was fully victorious on the "war on poverty"
- False: Johnson undermined the budget however, the poverty rate declined, educational performance of the poor rose with Project Head Start and health conditions improved in minority communities.
- what is the name the amendment, ratified in January 1964, which abolished the poll tax in federal elections?
- the 24th amendment in 1964 abolished the poll tax in federal elections
- what incident led to the Voting Rights Act of 1965? what did the Act outlaw
- In 1965 King resumed the voter-registration campaign in Selma, Alabama where state troopers w/ tear gas/whips assaulted the demonstrators.The voting rights act of 1965 outlawed literacy tests.
- What two black leaders symbolized the new phase of the black struggle, one that was marked by military confrontation.
- Stokely Carmicheal(born in Trinidad he was the leader of SNCC who advocated black power/abandonment of peaceful demonstrations) and Malcolm X(inspired by militant black nationalists in the Nation of Islam)
- what incident caused Johnson,for the fist time, to order US military troops to land on N. Vietnam in 1965
- Viet cong guerillas attacked an American base at Pleiku, South Vietnam in 1965& johnson ordered retaliatory bombing/troops to land
- What were the results of the US attack on North Vietnam
- 1) the peace corps were expelled from several nations
2) many were disgusted that a superpower would attack an underdeveloped foe
3) Charles de Gaulle ordered NATO out of France in 1966
4) The USSR was able to spread its influence esp. in Egpyt
5) domestic discontent i.e. fleeing to Canada,burning draft cards(illegal)
6) William Fulbright, head of the Foreign Relations led televised hearings in 1966/67 tgat voiced anti war views
7) CIA was ordered to violate its charter as a foreign intelligence agency to spy on domestic anti war activists.
8) FBI encouraged to turn its program against the peace movement "cointelpro"
- The Six Day war took place in 1967. Who was involoved and what happened
- In 1967 Egypt& Israel fought each other. Israel was given land in the Sinai Peninsula, the golan heights, Gaza Strip, and the West Bank of the Jordon River. Jewish settlers w/drew from Sinai but others went to the West Bank which bothered arabs
- Describe the 1960s
- The 1960s were similar to the 20s since Americans felt disillusioned
-skepticism about authority w/Nixon. U of Cali. was where 1 of the 1st organized protest against est. authority took place
-patriotism was seen as bad
-sex revolution i.e. birth control/homosexuality i.e. Manhattan Society
ppl saw the era as the replacement of human values with materialism
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