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Glossary of ch.24 exam

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industrial revolution
the transformation of the economy, the environment, and living conditions, occuring first in England in the 18th centur, that resulted from the use of steam engines, the mechanization of manufacturing in factories, and innovationsin transportation and communication.
agricultural revolution

(eighteenth century)
the transformation of farming that resulted in the 18th cantury from the spread of new crops,improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and the consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants and sharecroppers were forcibly expelled.
mass production
the manufacture of many identical products by the division of labor into many small repetitive tasks. method was introduced by josaih wedgewood with pottery and the spinning of cotton thread by richard arkwright.
Josiah Wedgewood
English industrialist whose pottery works were the first to produce fine-quality pottery by industrial methods.
division of labor
A manufacturing technique that breaks down a craft into many simple and repetitive tasks that can be performes by unskilled workers.
mechanization
the application of machinery to manufacturing and other activities.
Richard Arkwright
English inventor and entreprenuer who became the wealthiest and most succesful textile manufacturer of the early industrial revolution.
Crystal Palace
building erected in Hyde park, London, for the great exhibition of 1851.
steam engine
a machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion.Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable steam enginein 1712.
James Watt
Scot who invented the condenser and other improvements that made the steam engine a practical sourse of power for industry and transportation.
electric telegraph
a device for rapid,long-distance transmissionof information over an electric wire. It was introduced in England and North America in the 1830's and 1840's and replaced telegraph systems that utilized visual signals such as semaphores.
business cycle
recurrent swings from economic hard times to recovery and growth, then back to hard times to recovery and growth and a repetition of the sequence.
laissez faire
the idea that government should refrain from interfering in economic affairs. the classic exposition of laissez-faire principles is Adam smith's wealth of nations (1776).
positivism
a philosophy developed by the french count of Saint-Simon. Positivists beleived that social and economic problems could be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuous progress.
utopian socialism
a philosophy introduced by the frenchman Charles Fourier in the early nineteenth century. Utopian socialists hoped to create humane alternatives to industrial capitalism by building self-sustaining communities whose inhabitants would work coopertively.

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