Glossary of bones (general)
Created by klrmom
- expanded ends of a bone
- The main shaft of a long bone. (Plural is diaphyses.)
- That part of the bone which is located between the epiphysis and the diaphysis.
- The connective tissue membrane which covers the bone.
- The thin membrane which lines the marrow cavity of a bone.
- cortical bone
- The adjectival form of the term cortex, which refers to the outer layer. (type of tissue)
- cancellous bone
- A spongy structure, refers mostly to bone tissue. (type of tissue)
- Mature bone cells.
- Small cavities containing mature bone cells. (Singular is lacuna.)
- The narrow channels through which the osteocytes extend. (Singular is canaliculus.)
- axial skeleton
- has 80 bones, and includes the bones of the skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage, sternum, hyoid, and ears.
* Skull 21 (8 paired and 5 unpaired)
* Ossicles of Ears 6 (3 per side)
* Lower Jaw 1
* Hyoid Bone 1
* Vertebrae 26 bones
* Chest 25 bones
* Total 80
- paired bones of the skull (8 paired/total of 16):
- 1.inferior nasal concha
- unpaired bones of skull (5)
- 1. ethmoid
- ossicles of each ear (3 on each side)
- 1. incus
- lower jaw (bone)
- vertebral column (26 bones total)
- 1. cervical vertebrae (7)
2. atlas (1st cervical vertebrae)
3. axis (2nd certical vertebrae)
4. thoracic vertebrae (12)
5. lumbar vertebrae (5)
- chest (25 total)
- 1. sternum
2. ribs (12 pairs)
- anterior fontanel
- The space where the frontal angles of the parietal bones meet the two ununited halves of the frontal bone.
- posterior fontanel
- The space where the occipital angles of the parietal bones meet the occipital.
- anterolateral fontanels
- An interval on either side of the head where the frontal angle of the temporal bone and greater wing of the sphenoid meet. (2)
- posterolateral fontanels
- The interval on either side of the head between the mastoid angle of the parietal bone, the temporal bone, and the occipital bone. (2)
- cervical spine
- 7 vertebrae located in the neck area Abbreviated C1–C7; concave
- thoracic spine
- 12 vertebrae located in the upper back Abbreviated T1–T12; convex
- lumbar spine
- 5 vertebrae located in the lower back Abbreviated L1–L5; concave
- sacral spine
- 5 fused sacral vertebrae Two sides are smooth for joining with pelvic bones; resembles a triangle
- Single bone fused from 4–5 coccygeal vertebrae at base of spine Also called the tailbone
- Articulate means to loosely connect or join Thoracic vertebrae articulate to 12 ribs to create a protective cavity for the heart and lungs (thoracic cavity)
- invertebral discs
- Fibrous tissue and cartilage between the vertebrae to absorb spinal compression and shock Disc also correctly spelled disk
- appendicular skeleton:
- * clavicle (collarbone) (1 per side for a total of 2)
* scapula (shoulder blade) (1 per side for a total of 2)
* arm bones (3 per side for a total of 6)
o humerus (upper arm)
o radius (forearm)
o ulna (forearm)
* carpal (wrist) (8 per side for a total of 16)
* metacarpal (hand) (5 per side for a total of 10)
* phalanges (fingers) (14 per side for a total of 28)
* os coxae (hip/pelvic bone) (1 per side for a total of 2)
* femur (thigh) (1 per side for a total of 2)
* patella (kneecap) (1 per side for a total of 2)
* tibia (leg) (1 per side for a total of 2)
* fibula (leg) (1 per side for a total of 2)
* tarsal (ankle) (7 per side for a total of 14)
* metatarsal (foot) (5 per side for a total of 10
* phalanges (toes) (14 per side for a total of 28)
- 8 carpal bones:
- hamate, scaphoid, trapezium, pisiform, trapezoid, lunate, triquetrum, and capitate bones
- 7 tarsal bones
- talus, calcaneus, cuboid, navicular, and 1st, 2nd, and 3rd cuneiforms. The talus articulates with the tibia to bear weight from the legs. The medial malleolus (on the tibia) and the lateral malleolus (on the fibula) protect the talus on both sides.
- long bones
- Long bones are bones whose length is greater than their width, such as the bones of the extremities (tibia, fibula, femur, radius, ulna, humerus).
- short bones
- Short bones are shaped more like cubes and are generally found in the ankle and wrist (carpus and tarsus).
- flat bones
- Flat bones are found in the cranial vault, sternum (breastbone), shoulder blades, and ribs. Flat bones are made up of a layer of marrow (diploe) sandwiched between two layers of compact bone.
- irregular bones
- Irregular bones are a mix of irregularly shaped bones that do not fall into any of the other bone-type categories. They are found in the face, spinal column, and hips.
- sesamoid bones
- Sesamoid bones are mostly rounded masses embedded in certain tendons and are usually related to the surfaces of joints. Included in this group are the patella (kneecap), metacarpophalangeal joints of the hands, and metatarsophalangeal joints of the toes.
- wormian bones
- Wormian bones are small bones found between suture lines of the skull where the edges of the skull bones are joined together.
- fibrous joints
- No joint cavity and, in general, does not move. radioulnar and tibiofibular joints
- cartilagenous joints
- Has no cavity and is somewhat moveable. growth zones in the arms and legs
- synovial joints
- Joint cavity which is kept lubricated by synovial fluid. intercarpal joint
- Bending to decrease the angle between two bones. Think of this as flexing the biceps.
- Unbending to increase the angle between two bones. Think of this as extending, as in reaching your arm as far as you can (virtually eliminating the angle between the humerus and the radius/ulna).
- Moving a body part away from the midline.
- Moving a body part towards the midline. (Think of this as adding a body part back to the body.)
- Movement of a body part in a circle, which can include all the above joint movements as well.
- Movement of a body part or parts around its axis.
- The position of the body when lying face up, including hands being palm up and feet bent upwards.
- The position of the body when lying face down, including the hands being palm down and the feet bent downwards.
- Movement of the foot that brings the top of the foot closer to the leg.
- plantar flexion
- Movement of the foot that brings the heel closer to the posterior part of the leg, the toe pointed farther away from the leg.
- Small, rounded process on the femur.
- Massive and found only on the femur.
- Round, articulating knob on the humerus.
- Large, rounded process on the humerus.
- types of projections
- tuberosity, condyle, trochanter, tubicle
- Flattened, shallow; i.e. armpit (axillae).
- Grooved, fissure; i.e. deep furrows of brain.
- Cavity, hollow space in bone.
- Allows nerves and blood vessels to pass; i.e. foramen of skull.
- types of depressions (muscle/bone attachment)
- foramen, sinus, sulcus, fossa
- nuchal ligament
- Nuchal means pertaining to the neck.
- triquetral ligament
- Triquetral means three cornered and appears in different places throughout the body. The prefix tri- should be familiar as meaning three.
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