Glossary of biology notes 2

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how much nitrogen is in our atmosphere?
how much oxygen is in our atmosphere?
what is the small percent of trace gasses in our atmosphere?
what is respiration?
the energy releasing process fueled by oxygen
why is it better to breathe through your nose, rather than your mouth?
the nose warms air, traps dirt in the air, and moistens the air that is inhaled into your body
how does the sound in your voice occur?
air passes over your vocal cords causing them to vibrate; when the vocal cords are stretched out, there is higher pitch; when they are loose, there is a lower pitch in voice
what is the correct term for the voice box?
what is the correct term for the windpipe?
what is your diaphragm?
the muscle under your lungs that causes them to in/ex-hale
what are the tiny sacs in your lungs called? what is their purpose?
alveoli; they are little sacs ing the lungs where red blood cells enter; here the exchange between O2 and CO2 occurs with the red blood cells; red blood cells drop off CO2 so it can be exhaled, and then they pick up O2 to take it to the heart; the heart then pumps this O2 all over the body
what is the job of the excretory system?
to remove liquid waste from the human body
what are the four major excretory organs?
kidneys, ureturs, bladder, urethra
what happens inside the kidneys?
know all of these key points:
1. inside are millions of nephrons (just like alveoli in lungs)
2. the wastes that are filtered out are salts, digested food particles, urea and even water
3. these subtances passed through a cup-shaped area called capsules
4. there, water and digested food particles becomes reabsorbed
5. other wastes now are called urine
6. urine travels down through ureturs to the bladder
7. bladder excretes the waste
what is the liver's purpose?
filters amino acids out of the bloodstream; recycles worn out hemoglobin
what is special about the skin? what is its purpose?
largest organ; contains sweat glands that excreat waste through pores
what are the two layers of skin?
epidermis-outer, thinnner layer; covered by layer of dead skin cells
dermis- thicker layer containing many things (that will be in a question on another flashcard)
what things are inside the dermis?
oil glands, sweat glands, fat, blood vessels, muscle, nerves (receptor cells) and hair folicles
what is urea made of?
nitrogen wastes
what are cilia?
microscopic hairs that line the exceratory system and trap dirt and bacteria
what is sweat made of?
excess water, salts, and urea
what is the purpose of the nervous system?
recieves and sends out info pertaining to our body
while traveling through the nervous system, information/feelings etc is called a(n)...
what enters through sense organs?
what are the two types of nervous system responses
voluntary or involuntary
the name for nerve cells are called...
type of neuron that recieves impulse from receptor cells and send it to another type of neuron is called...
sensory neurons
type of neuron found in brain and spinal cord; recieves and impulse from a sensory neuron
type of neuron- carries impuluses from brain or spinal cord to a muscle cell or gland
what is the path an impulse takes through the nervous system?
receptor cells > sensory neurons > interneurons > motorneurons > effector cells
how do impulses travel?
by electrical signals
how does an impulse travel across "the gap between two neurons"
by chemical signal across the "synapse"
what is the process called where the chemical signal travels across a synapse?
carried by neurotransmiters
what is the first division of our nervous system?
central- consists of brain and spinal cord
what is the second division of our nervous system?
peripheral- contains all nerves connected to brain and spinal cord
what are the eye nerve, nose nerve and ear nerve really called? what is unique about them?
optic nerve; olfactory nerve; auditory nerve; they are the only 3 pairs of nerves that connect straight to the brain, and not to the spinal cord
what are the 3 protective layers of the brain? what is the fourth?
1. inner layer- soft tissue closet to brain, following all folds
2. middle layer- watery fluid
3. outer layer- tough tissue
4. skull- toughest; made of bone
what is the cerebrum?
largest part of the brain, made of four lobes
what is the cerebrum responsible for?
learning, intelligence, judgement, personality, movements, attitued and emotion
what are the four lobes of the cerebrum?
1. frontal lobe- talking, thinking moving
2. parietal lobe- touching
3. ocipital lobe- seeing
4. temporal lobe- hearing, tasting smelling
what is the cerebellum responsible for?
coordination and balance
what is the medula responsible for?
heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure
how many nerve pairs does the spinal cord have?
what is the spinal cord responsible for?
giving directions for some reflexes
what is a reflex?
quick, simple response to a stimulus
how many pairs of nerves does the peripheral nervous system have?

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