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Glossary of biology; cells

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cell wall
inflexible barrior that protects the cell and gives it support
plasma membrane
flexible boundry betweem the cell and its enviroment; allos materials such as water and nutrients to enter and waste products to leave
ribosome
proteins are assembled
Hooke
an english scientist who used a compund light microscope to study cork, the dead cells of oak bark; he gave the the box shaped structures the name cell
schwann
made similar observations on animals; the observations and conclusions of these scientists are summarixed as the cell theory
schleiden
observed a variety of plants and concluded that all plants are composed of cells
vsn leeuwenhoek
used the simple light microscope because it contained one lens and used light to view objects in the 1600s
electron microscope
was developed in 1930s and 40s; this microscope used a beam of electrons instead of light to maagnify structures up to 500000 times their actual size
cell theory
1 all organisms are composed of one or more cells
2 the cell is the basic unit of structure and organiztion of organisms
3 all cells come from preexisting cells
compound microscope
use a seies of lenses to magnify objects in steps magnify up to 1500 x
nucleus
center of the atom; controles the functions of the cell
eukaryote
unicellular and multicellular... contain a true nucleus and membrane bound organelles
prokaryote
unicellular.. lack internal membrane cells
homeostasis
to maintain conditions suitable for surbibal; process of maintaining equlibrium in cells internal enviroments
chloroplast
chlorophylled containing organelles found in the cells of green plants and some protists. CAPTURE LIGHT ENERGY AND CONVERT TO CHEMICAL ENERGY
plastid
group of plant organelles that are used for storage of starches lipids or pigments
fluid mosaic model
structual model of the plasma membrane where molecules are fee to move sideways within a lipid bilayer
selectively permeable
feature of the plasma membrane that maintains homeostasis within a vell by allowing some molecules into the cell while keeping others out
dynamic equilibrium
result of diffusion where there is continuous movement of particles but no overall change in concentration
enzyme
type of protein found in all living things that changes the rate of chemical reactions
mitochondria
trnsform enerygy stored in food molecules has a highly folded inner membrane that produces energy storing molecules
vacuole
temparary storage of materials
nucleolus
produces ribosomes

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