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Glossary of basic anatomy from NASM text

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kinetic chain
nervous system, skeletal system and muscular system
primary nervous system functions
sensory function, integrative function, motor function
sensory function
ability to sense changes in either external or internal environments
integrative function
ability to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making, which produces appropriate response
motor function
neuromuscular response to sensory information
sensory/afferent
transmit nerve impulses from effector sites to cns
interneurons
from one neuron to another
motor/efferent neurons
from cns to effector sites
cns
interprets information
peripheral nervous system
12 cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves, and sensory receptors; relay info to and from brain
sensory receptors
mechanoreceptors, nociceptors, chemoreceptors, photoreceptors
mechanoreceptors
sensory receptor responsible for sensing distortion in body tissues. muscle spindles, golgi tendon organs, joint receptors
muscle spindles
fibers sensitive to change in length of muscle and rate of that change; major sensory organs of muscle. parallel to muscle fibers. transmit info to cns when stretched. causes muscle to contract to prevent overstretching/ stretching too fast.
golgi tendon organs
organs sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change. musculotendinous junction. sensitive to changes in muscular tension and rate of tension change. causes relaxation to prevent xs stress/injury.
joint receptors
in and around jt capsule. respond to pressure, acceleration and deceleration of jt. signal extremel jt positions. initiate reflexive inhibitory response in surrounding muscles.
axial skeleton
skull, rib cage, vertebral column
80 bones
appendicular skeleton
upper and lower extremities, shoulder and pelvic girdles; 126 bones
pelvic girdle
some authors consider it a component of either axial or appendicular and actually a link between the two
total bones
206; 177 used in voluntary movement
total joints
over 300
bone function
leverage; provide support (posture) for efficient distribution of forces acting on body
types of bones
long, short, flat, irregular
long bones
long cylindrical shaft and irregular or widened ends; mostly compact bone tissue for strength and stiffness with spongy bone tissue for shock absorptionex humerus, femur, clavicle, radius, ulna, metacarpals, phalanges, tibia, fibula, metatarsals, phalanges
short
similar in length and width, somewhat cubical; mostly spongy for shock absorption; carpals of hands, tarsals of feet
flat
thin, protective; two layers of compact bone around spongy bone; protection of internal structures and broad attachment sites for muscles. sternum, ribs, ilium cranial bones, scapulae, patella
irregular
unique shape and function; vertebrae, pelvic bones, some facial bones
depressions
flat/indented portion of bone which can be a muscle attachment site. fossa, sulcus
processes
projection protruding from bone where muscles, ligaments and tendons can attach. process, condyle, epicondyle, tubercle, trochanter
fossa
supraspinous fossa, infraspinous fossa of scapulae
sulcus
groove; intertubercular sulcus for biceps tendon; between greater and lesser tubercles of humerus
process
spinous process on vertebrae; acromion and coracoid processes on scapulae
condyles
inner and outer portion at bottom of femur, top of tibia forming knee joint
epicondyles
inner and outer portion of humerus-elbow
tubercles
top of humerus at glenohumeral joint; greater and lesser tubercles; attachments of shoulder muscles
trochanters
top of femur; attachment of hip muscles; greater trochanter is commonly called hip bone
arthrokinematics
joint motion: roll, slide, spin
roll
femoral condyes moving over tibial condyles during squat
slide
tibial condyles moving across femoral condyles during knee extension
spin
head of radius rotating on end of humerus during pronation/supination
synovial joints
80 percent of joints; greatest capacity for motion; no fibrous/cartilaginous tissue. synovial fluid. held together by joint capsule and ligaments.
types of synovial joints
gliding (plane)
condyloid (condylar or ellipsoidal)
hinge
saddle
pivot
ball and socket
gliding/plant joint
non axial joint. simplest movement; back and forth or side to side. ex: navicular bone and second or third cuneiform bones in foot; carpals of hand; facet joints
condyloid
condyle of one bone fits into elliptical cavity of other bone; movement in one plane only. wrist between radius and carpals; knee joint. flexion/extension in sagittal plane
hinge joint
uninaxial. sagittal plane only. elbow, interphalangeal, ankle
saddle joint
only in carpometacarpal joint of thumb; sagittal, frontal plane, plus some rotation; circumduction
pivot joints
rotation, pronation/supination in transverse plane. alantoaxial joint at base of skull; radioulnar joint
ball and socket
most mobile. all three planes. shoulder, hip.
nonsynovial joints
no joint cavity, connective tissue or cartilage; little/no movement; sutures, distal tib/fib (ankle), symphysis pubis.
ligament
primary connective tissue that connects bones together and provides stability (static, dynamic), input to nervous system, guidance and limitation of improper joint movement. made of collagen and varying amounts of elastin. poor vascularity; slow to heal, adapt
collagen
parallel to forces placed on ligament. provide ligament with ability to withstand tension (tensile strength)
elastin
gives ligament some flexibility or elastic recoil to withstand bending and twisting
anterior cruciate ligament
low elastin, mostly collagen; resists strong forces; good stabilizing structure
from outer to inner
fascia,epimysium (tendon), muscle, perimysium, fascicle, endomysium, individual muscle fibers
tendon formed by
fascia and epimysium
fascicles are wrapped by
perimysium
individual muscle fibers are wrapped by
endomysium
tendon
attach muscle to bone
sarcolemma
plasma membrane of muscle fibers
myofibrils
structures unique to muscle cells which contain myofilaments
myofilaments
actual contractile components of muscle tissue; actin and myosin
actin
thin filaments;
myosin
thick filaments
sarcomere
functional unit of muscle; produces contraction and consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin
sarcomere lies in space between two
z lines
tropomyosin
on actin filament; blocks myosin binding sites on actin filament; keeps myosin from attachin to actin when muscle is relaxed
troponin
on actin; provides binding sites for calcium and tropomyosin when muscle needs to contract
motor unit
motor neuron and muscle fibers it innervates
ach
once attached, stimulates muscle fibers to go through series of steps that produe muscle contractions
sliding filament theory
z lines move closer together, sarcomere shortens. myosin heads attach to actin, z lines converge. asynchronous pulling=power strokes.
calcium
released into sarcoplasm and binds to troponin
binding of calcium to troponin
forces tropomyosin to move away from myosin binding site allowing for myosin to bind to actin
muscle fiber types
chemical and mechanical properties. type I and type II fibers
type I
sitting upright, maintaing ideal posture against gravity for extended period of time
type II
sprint
type IIa
higher oxidative capacity and fatigue more slowly than IIb
type IIb
low oxidative capacity and fatigue quickly
anterior tibialis
mostly slow type I
lateral head of gastroc
half type I
pennation
muscle fibers that run at an angle to tendon; pennation increases force out put of muscle. allows larger number of muscle fibers to be placed in a smaller space; creastes greater cross sectional area of muscle that would appear to be smaller

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