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Glossary of barron

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abase
v. ~ oneself/sb lower oneself/sb in dignity; degrade oneself/sb ;
abash
to destroy the self-possession or self-confidence of:disconcert
abate
v. make or become less
abbreviate
v. ~ sth shorten (a word, phrase, etc), esp by omitting letters
abdicate
v. resign from or formally renounce the throne
aberrant
adj. not following the normal or correct way
aberration
n. deviation from what is accepted as normal or right
abet
v. ~ sb (in sth) help or encourage sb to commit an offence or do sth wrong
abeyance
n. be in abeyance; fall/go into abeyance (of a right, rule, problem, etc) be suspended temporarily; not be in force or use for a time
abhor
v. feel hatred and disgust for (sb/sth); detest
abide
v. (esp with can/could, in negative sentences or questions can/could) tolerate (sb/sth); endure; bear
abject
adj. wretched; hopeless
abjure
v. promise or swear to give up (a claim, an opinion, a belief, etc); renounce formally
ablution
n. (fml or joc ) ceremonial washing of the body, hands, sacred vessels, etc
abnegation
n. denial or renunciation (of a doctrine)
abode
n. house; home
abolish
v. end the existence of
abominable
adj. ~(fml ) causing disgust; detestable
abominate
v. feel hatred or disgust for (sth/sb); detest; loathe
aboriginal
adj. inhabiting a land from a very early period, esp before the arrival of colonists
abortive
adj. coming to nothing; unsuccessful
abrasive
adj. that scrapes or rubs sth away; rough
abridge
v. make shorter, esp by using fewer words; condense
abrogate
v. cancel, repeal or annul (sth)
abscission
The act of cutting off, as in a surgical operation.
abscond
v. ~go away suddenly and secretly, esp in order to avoid arrest
absolute
adj. complete; total
absolve
v. ~ sb (fml esp law , ) clear sb (of guilt); declare sb free (from blame, a promise, a duty, etc)
abstain
v. ~ keep oneself from doing or enjoying sth, esp from taking alcoholic drinks; refrain ;
abstemious
adj. not taking much food or drink; not self-indulgent; moderate
abstinence
n. ~ abstaining, esp from food or alcoholic drinks
abstract
adj. existing in thought or as an idea but not having a physical or practical existence
abstruse
adj. difficult to understand
abusive
adj. criticizing harshly and rudely; insulting
abut
v. ~ on/against sth (of land or a building) have a common boundary or side with sth; adjoin sth
abysmal
adj. extremely bad
abyss
n. hole so deep that it seems to have no bottom
academic
adj. of schools, colleges, etc
accede
v. ~ (fml ) take office
accelerate
v. make move faster or happen earlier; increase the speed of
accessible
adj. ~ that can be reached, used, etc
accessory
n. thing that is a useful or decorative extra but that is not essential; minor fitting or attachment
acclaim
v. welcome (sb/sth) with shouts of approval; applaud loudly
acclimate
to adapt to a new temperature, altitude, climate, environment, or situation
acclivity
n. upward slope
accolade
n. praise; approval
accommodate
v. provide lodging or room for
accomplice
n. person who helps another to do sth wicked or illegal
accord
n. peace treaty; agreement
accost
v. approach and speak to (sb) boldly
accoutre
equip
accretion
n. growth or increase by means of gradual additions
accrue
v. ~ (from sth) come as a natural increase or advantage, esp financial; accumulate
acerbity
Sourness of taste, character, or tone.
acetic
adj. of, containing, producing, or derived from acetic acid or vinegar
acidulous
adj. rather sharp or bitter in taste or manner
acknowledge
v. accept the truth of admit (sth)
acme
n. highest stage of development; point of perfection
acne
n. inflammation of the oil-glands of the skin, producing red pimples on the face and neck
acoustics
n. qualities of a room, hall, etc that make it good or bad for carrying sound
acquiesce
v. ~ (fml ) accept sth without protest; offer no opposition (to a plan, conclusion, etc)
acquittal
n. judgement that a person is not guilty of the crime with which he has been charged
acrid
adj. having a strongly bitter smell or taste
acrimonious
adj. bitter
acrophobia
"acro'phobic adjectiv
actuarial
calculating; pertaining to insurance statistics
actuary
n. expert who calculates insurance risks and premiums
actuate
v. make (a machine, an electrical device, etc) move or work; make (a process) begin , ;
acuity
n. (esp of thought or the senses) sharpness; acuteness
acumen
n. ability to understand and judge things quickly and clearly; shrewdness
acute
adj. very great; severe
adage
n. traditional saying; proverb ;
adamant
adj. firmly or stubbornly determined; unwilling to be persuaded
adapt
v. ~ sth (for sth) make sth suitable for a new use, situation, etc; modify sth
addendum
n. thing that is to be added
addiction
n. ~ condition of taking drugs, etc habitually and being unable to stop doing so without suffering adverse effects
addle
v. confuse (sth/sb); muddle
address
n. details of where a person lives, works or can be found, and where letters, etc may be delivered
adept
adj. ~ ~ (at/in doing sth) expert or skilful in (doing) sth
adhere
v. ~ (to sth) remain attached (to sth); stick (as if) by means of glue or suction
adherent
n. supporter of a party or doctrine
adjacent
having a common endpoint or border also immediately preceding or following
adjoin
v. be next or nearest to and joined with
adjourn
v. stop (a meeting, etc) for a time; postpone
adjunct
n. ~ thing that is added or attached to sth else but is less important and not essential
adjuration
solemn urging
adjutant
n. army officer responsible for administrative work in a battalion
admonish
to express warning or disapproval to especially in a gentle, earnest, or solicitous manner
adore
v. love deeply and respect (sb) highly
adorn
v. ~ sth/sb/oneself add beauty or ornament to sth/sb/oneself
adroit
adj. ~ skilful; clever
adulation
n. excessive admiration or praise; flattery
adulterate
v. make poorer in quality by adding another substance
Advent
n. the ~ of sth/sb the approach or arrival of
adventitious
adj. not planned; accidental
adversary
n. opponent in a contest; enemy
adverse
adj. not favourable; contrary
adversity
n. unfavourable conditions; trouble
advert
n. = advertisement
advocacy
n. ~ giving of support (to a cause, etc)
advocate
v. speak publicly in favour of (sth); recommend; support
aegis
n. under the aegis of sb/sth with the protection or support of sb/sth, esp a public institution
aerie
= eyrie
aesthetic
adj. concerned with beauty and the appreciation of beauty
affable
adj. polite and friendly
affected
adj. not natural or genuine; pretended; artificial
affidavit
n. written statement that can be used as evidence in court, made by sb who swears that it is true
affiliation
n. affiliating or being affiliated
affinity
n. ~ ~ (between A and B) structural resemblance or similarity of character; relationship
affirmation
n. affirming
affix
v. ~ sth (fml ) stick, fasten or attach sth
affliction
n. pain; suffering; distress
affluence
n. abundance of money, goods or property; wealth
affront
n. ~ (to sb/sth) deliberately insulting or disrespectful remark, action, etc, esp in public
afterlife
n. existence that is thought by some to follow death
agape
adj. ~ (of the mouth) wide open, esp with wonder
agenda
n. matters of business to be discussed at a meeting, etc
agglomeration
n. action of agglomerating
aggrandize
to make appear great or greater:praise highly
aggregate
v. ~ sb (fml ) be formed or bring sb into an assembled group or amount
aghast
adj. ~ filled with horror or amazement
agility
nimbleness
agitate
v. cause anxiety to (a person, his feelings, etc); disturb; excite
agnostic
n. person who believes that nothing can be known about the existence of God or of anything except material things
agog
adj. eager; excited
agrarian
adj. of land
airy
adj. having plenty of fresh air moving about; well-ventilated
alacrity
n. prompt and eager readiness
alchemy
n. medieval form of chemistry, the chief aim of which was to discover how to turn ordinary metals into gold ,
alcove
n. small space in a room, etc formed by part of the wall being set back; recess
alias
n. name by which a person is called at other times or in other places; false name
alienate
v. ~ sb cause sb to become unfriendly or indifferent; estrange sb
alimentary
adj. of food and digestion
alimony
n. allowance that a court may order a man to pay to his wife or former wife before or after a legal separation or divorce
allay
v. make (sth) less; relieve
allege
v. state (sth) as a fact but without proof; give as an argument or excuse
allegiance
n. ~ (to sb/sth) support of or loyalty to a government, ruler, cause, etc
allegory
n. story, painting or description in which the characters and events are meant as symbols of purity, truth, patience, etc ,
alleviate
v. make less severe; ease
alliteration
n. occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of two or more words in succession, as in sing a song of sixpence or as thick as thieves , sing a song of sixpence as thick as thieves
allocate
v. ~ sth allot or assign sth (to sb/sth) for a special purpose
alloy
n. metal formed of a mixture of metals or of metal and another substance
allude
v. ~ to sb/sth (fml ) mention sb/sth briefly or indirectly
allure
v. tempt or attract (sb) by the expectation of gaining sth
allusion
n. ~ indirect reference
alluvial
adj. made of sand, earth, etc left by rivers or floods, esp in a delta
alms
n. money, clothes, food, etc given to poor people
aloft
adv. up in the air; overhead
aloof
adj. ~ cool and remote in character; unconcerned
altercation
n. (act of) quarrelling or arguing noisily
altruistic
(adj.) unselfish
amalgam
n. alloy of mercury with another metal
amalgamate
v. ~ (with sb/sth) (cause people or things to) combine or unite
amass
v. gather together or collect (sth), esp in large quantities
amazon
n. tall strong athletic woman
ambidextrous
adj. able to use the left hand or the right hand equally well
ambience
n. environment; atmosphere of a place
ambiguous
adj. having more than one possible meaning
ambivalence
the state of having contradictory or conflicting emotional attitudes
amble
v. ride or walk at a slow, leisurely pace
ambrosia
n. food of the gods
ambulatory
walking
ambush
n. waiting in a hidden position to make a surprise attack
ameliorate
v. (cause sth to) become better
amenable
adj. ~ (of people) willing to be influenced or controlled (by sth)
amend
v. correct an error in (sth); make minor improvements in; change slightly
amenities
[ amenity: ] [often pl] a useful or pleasant facility or service
amiable
adj. showing and inspiring friendliness; pleasant and good-tempered
amicable
adj. showing friendliness; without hostility
amiss
adj. , adv wrong(ly); inappropriate(ly)
amity
n. friendly relationship between people or countries
amnesia
n. partial or total loss of memory
amnesty
n. general pardon, esp for offences against the State
amok
adv. run amok rush about in a wild and angry frenzy
amoral
adj. not based on moral standards; not following any moral rules ;
amorous
adj. readily showing or feeling love; relating to love
amorphous
adj. having no definite shape or form; not organized
amphibian
n. animal able to live both on land and in water
amphitheater
oval building with tiers of seats
ample
adj. enough
amplify
v. increase (sth) in size or strength
amputate
v. cut off by surgical operation
amulet
n. piece of jewellery, etc worn as a charm1(
anachronism
n. mistake of placing sth in the wrong historical period
analgesia
n. loss of ability to feel pain while still conscious
analgesic
adj. n substance that relieves pain
analogous
adj. ~ partially similar or parallel; offering an analogy
analogy
n. ~ partial similarity between two things that are compared
anarchist
n. person who believes in anarchism
anarchy
n. absence of government or control in society; lawlessness
anathema
n. detested person or thing
anathematize
declare to be evil or anathema
ancestry
n. line of ancestors
anchor
n. heavy metal device attached to a rope, chain, etc and used to moor a ship or boat to the sea-bottom or a balloon to the ground
ancillary
adj. ~ helping in a subsidiary way
anecdote
n. short, interesting or amusing story about a real person or event ,
anemia
condition in which blood lacks red corpuscles
anesthetic
= anaesthesia, anaesthetic
anguish
n. severe physical or mental pain
angular
adj. having angles or sharp corners
animadversion
n. criticism
animated
adj. lively
animosity
n. ~ ~ (between A and B) (instance of) strong dislike or of hostility
animus
n. animosity shown in speech or action
annals
n. story of events year by year; historical records
anneal
v. make tough by cooling slowly after heating
annex
v. take possession of
annihilate
v. destroy completely
annotate
v. add notes to giving explanation or comment
annuity
n. fixed sum of money paid to sb yearly, usu for the remaining part of his lifetime
annul
v. declare (sth) no longer valid; abolish; cancel
anodyne
n, adj that can relieve pain
anoint
v. ~ sb apply oil or ointment to sb (esp as a religious ceremony)
anomalous
adj. different from what is normal; irregular
anomaly
n. anomalous thing; irregularity
anonymity
n. state of being anonymous
antagonism
n~ ~ (between A and B) (instance of) active opposition or hostility, esp between two people
antagonistic
adj. ~ showing or feeling antagonism; hostile
antecede
be earlier in time; go back further
antecedents
ancestr
antediluvian
adj. of the time before Noah's Flood
anthem
n. short musical composition, usu for a choir and an organ, to be sung in religious services, often with words taken from the Bible ,
anthology
n. collection of poems or pieces of prose on the same subject or by the same writer
anthropoid
adj. man-like in form
anthropologist
n. student of or expert in anthropology
anthropomorphic
adj. treating gods, animals, etc as human in form and personality ,
anticlimax
n. disappointing end to a series of events which had seemed likely to become more interesting, exciting or impressive
antidote
n. ~ substance that acts against the effects of a poison or disease
antipathy
settled aversion or dislike:DISTASTE
antiquated
adj. (of things) out of date, obsolete ,
antique
adj. belonging to the distant past
antiquity
n. ancient times, esp before the Middle Ages
antiseptic
n. substance that prevents a wound, etc from becoming septic, esp by destroying bacteria
antithesis
n. ~ (of/to sth/sb) direct opposite
antler
n. branched horn of a stag or of some other deer
anvil
n. iron block on which a smith shapes heated metal by hammering it
apathetic
adj. showing or feeling apathy
apathy
n. ~ lack of interest, enthusiasm or concern; indifference
ape
n. any of the four primates (gorilla, chimpanzee, orang-utan, gibbon) most closely related to man .
aperture
n. narrow opening
apex
n. top or highest point
aphasia
n. partial or total loss of ability to speak or understand spoken language, caused by damage to the brain
aphorism
n. short wise saying; maxim ;
apiarist
n. person who keeps bees
apiary
n. place with a number of hives where bees are kept
apiculture
the cultivation of bees on a commercial scale for the production of honey
aplomb
n. confidence and self-control; poise
apocalyptic
adj. prophesying great and dramatic events like those in the Apocalypse
apocryphal
adj. not likely to be genuine; untrue or invented
apogee
n. position in the orbit of the moon, a planet or a satellite when it is at its greatest distance from the earth ,

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