Glossary of anatomy resourse guide pages

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single person computed tomography
what is Ultrasound?
it is one of the most noninvasive, diagnostic tools for studing internal structures.
how does ultrasound work?
1st, the doctor places a tranceder upon a small part of the skin
2nd, it sends out a stream of high frquency sound waves that penetrate the body
3rd, it then detects waves that bounce off of the surface to be observed
what is ultrasound most commonly used for?
obsterics, gynocology, cardiology, and cancer detection
why are ultrasounds considered safer than x-rays
ultrasounds use no radiation
magnetic resonance imaging
what does MRI use
a long super conducter magnet shaped like a tunnel
what are tropins?
hormones that influence other endocrine glands; are also refered to as tropic hormones
what do antidiuretic hormones promote?
promotes water retention during urine formation.
what are the two hormones that regulate the functions of the kidney?
aldosterone and ADH
what does the aldosterone control?
contorls the level of sodium in the ulterfiltrate.
where is water regularly taken into?
Taken into the body in food and drinks
is continually formed from chemical reactions in cells.
what does the hypothalamus contain?
Contains receptors that are able to detect the blood's osmolarity and send signals to the posterior pituitary to release ADH when an increased osmotic pressure is detected.
What does the thyroid gland consist of?
consists of two lobes located just inferior to the larynx.
What does the thyroid gland produce?
It produces two similar hormones derived from the amino acid tyrosine, the Thyroid homone(T4) and the Triiodothyronine (T5)
what is a function of the thyroid gland
The thyroid hormones regulates oxygen use and basic metabolic rate, cellular metabolism, and growth and development.
what is Hyperthyroidism?
it is a condition of excess secretion of thyroid hormone.
What can Hyperthyroidism cause?
It can cause a higher than normal body temperature, profuse perspiration, an elevated blood pressure, and usually weight loss.
How many parathyroid glands do humans have?
Humans have four and they are joined by the thyroid gland
who was the first person to apply x-rays on the human body?
Wilhelm Rontgens
biogenic amines
amino acids that are modified (decarboxylated)
what is too soft to display details on x-ray film?
the brain
endocrine organs
ductless glands that release hormones into blood
x-rays can be used to easily locate what?
in the 1950's, physicians used what to detect malfunctions in the thyroid
iodine I3I
what are peptide hormones composed of?
small chains of amino acids
Nuclear medicine uses diagnostic procedures that involve the use of what?
radioactive tracers; mixed with chemicals that are ingested, inhaled, or injected into the body.
what are protein hormones composed of?
longer chains of amino acids.
what are both peptide and protein hormones synthesized by?
rough endoplasmic reticulum
what is the basis for nuclear medicine?
what are steroid hormones synthesized from?
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
when an electron bumps to a lower orbital, it releases energy in the form of what?
a photon
one development that enhanced x rays was the use of what?
fluorescent screens and spaecial glasses; these allowed physicians to view x ray images in real time
what happens when the concentration of a hormone declines?
the inhibitory response ceases, and the promotion of secretion for that hormone resumes.
what happens when follicular cells mature?
they begin to secrete estrogen
how is the anterior pituitary gland directley connected to the hypothalamus?
through a special system of blood vessels
What was the four-humor model of the body?
The body is made of up blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile (the four humors)
What did the Greeks think were the 3 stages of disease?
1. an imbalance between the humors.
2. a "boiling" reaction to this imbalance
3. the discharge of the imbalanced humor or death.
What was the Greek's normal treatment of disease?
a change in diet or a balanced routine of sleep and exercise.
Who is the "father" of western medicine?
What did Hippocrates believe was the cause of illness?
He believed that disease was caused by natural causes, such as bad food.
What theory was Hippocrates first to use as a diagnostic tool?
the humoral theory
What did Hippocrates believe was the foundation of medicine?
How did Hippocrates gain his anatomical knowlegde?
by observing wounds and old human bones
What ethic and moral code did Hippocrates follow while practicing medicine?
enriching and imroving the lives of those to whom he ministered
what type of scans produce x rays and scans from hundereds of different angles to compile a 3-D image?
CAT scans
what is an MEG?
what is it used for?
pinpointing minute enomalies of the brain?
what have scientistsrecently discovered with the MRI
a way to observe the brain as it functions
where is the hypothalamus located???
in the brain just below the thalamus and generally functions as a part of the nervous system.
what do the hormones produced and released from the hypothalamus regulate?
water and nutrient balance, metabloism, growth, development, and control electrolyte levels
where is the pituitary gland located
at the base of the brain, and is attched to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum. also called the hypophysis
the pituatary gland consists of two distinct portions...
anterior lobe and the posterior lobe
why is the anterior pituitary gland a true endocrine gland?
because it manufactures and secretes hormones
what do the parathyroid glands monitor?
They constantly monitor the amount of calcium in the blood.
what is hyperparathyroidism?
It is a major disease of the parathroid glands and it causes them to make excess papthryoid hormone which can cause serious calcium imbalance.
what does the adrenal cortex make?
It makes up the majority of the adrenal glands and secretes mineralocorticoids and glucocorticiods.
what is an aldosterone?
It is the most notable mineralocorticoid and it stimulates sodium and transport, thus water reabsorption from the kidney, which results in blood volume.
what is the most notable glucocorticoid?
Cortisol, which is present in elevated amounts during stress or trauma.
when does Addison's disease occur?
When the adrenal glands produce insufficient levels of cortisol.
what are the Islets of Langerhans?
it is the inside of the pancreas that is a small endocrine center.
what does the secretion of glucose help?
Its helps elevate the blood sugar levels to a normal level.
what is diabetes mellitus?
A deficiancy of insulin production
How can diabetics restore insulin levels?
By self-administering an injection of insulin or sometimes can abte the system associated with the disease by controlling their diet.
what are the gonads?
They are the male testes and the female ovaries. The testes secrete testosterone and the ovaries secrete estrogens and progesterone.
what is the pineal gland?
It is an endocrine gland that is attached to the third ventricle of the brain.
What does the pineal gland secrete?
It secretes melatonin, a hormone that is believed to control the body rhythms, and influence sexual development.
what is tht thymus gland?
it is primarily considered an organ of the lymphoid system and it produces the development of T cells, a white blood cell that destroys microbes and foreign substances.
What two subjects did Aristotle focus on as a naturalist?
biology and zoology
What were the two books by Aristotle that demonstrated his accute observation of animals?
De partibus animalium (on the parts of animals) and De generative animalium (On the Generation of Animals)
What did Aristotle research regarding the blood?
he described the major arteries and their branches in into smaller blood vessels
What is the preformation theory?
the now obsolete theory that sperm and egg cells contain miniature adults that grow during development
What type of science did Aristotle create?
What did Herophilus discover about the brain?
the brain served as the center of the nervous system, distinguised the cerebrum from the cerebellum and sensory nerves from motor nerves, and proclaimed the brain as center of thought
what is the duodenum?
the passage from the stomach to the intestine, named by Herophilus
What was Erasistratus's pneumatic theory?
It described the heart as a pump and delineated the auricles of the heart, the cardiac valves, and many blood vessels
What did Erasistratus believe about nerves?
He believed that nerves were channels that carried pneuma (vital air) to the various parts fo the body.
Who was Galen?
He was a Roman physician and anatomist.
What was De usu partium (On the usefullness of the parts of the body?
Galen's 130 treatsies on the body that served as the definite reference for medical knowledge for 1500 years.
What were Galen's observations made from?
The dissection of animals?
Were all of Galen's ideas accurate?
no, many of his ideas on the body were wrong
How did Galen rise to be an important doctor in the Roman world?
He rose to prominince when he became the surgeon of the Emperor's son
What type of animals did Galen study to make his observations?
Barbary apes
What was the Cannon of Medicine?
Written by the Persian doctor Ibn Sina, this book was compiled of greek and roman texts with added discoveries. It served as the leading authority in European medical schools until the 1600s.
Where was the best research on anatomy conducted?
in univerities, such as the University of Padua
What did early anatomists describe the longs as?
the "cooling agents that counterbalanced the heat generated from the heart
What did Renaissnace anatomist believe about the lungs?
They believed that the there was a connection between the lungs and the respitory system but did not understand it.
What did paracelsus do?
he researched lung diseases in the 16th century and developled the idea to mix chemicals to create drugs
Who was William Harvey?
he established a model of arterial and venous blood flow
What is the exchange of gases between the blood and the air inhaled into the lungs?
external respiration
What is the echange between circulatory fluids and tissue called?
internal respiration
Why does the body require constant respitory functioning?
Because the potential oxygen storage in tissue is quite limited.
What happens to a baby's lungs before and during birth?
While a human fetus is in the uterus, its lungs contain air. After birth, the lungs inflate into a spongy material and fill the chest cavity.
What are the two types of structures in the respitory system?
the air passageways and the lungs.
What are the different air passageways?
the nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, alveolar ducts, bronchioles, and alveoli.
What is the purpose of the nose and the mouth in the respitory system?
they moisten and warm air as it enters the body, all the while filtering and trapping entering debris. The nose also serves as a resonation chamber in speech and house the olfactory receptors.
What are the paranasal sinuses?
The sinuses that surround the nasal cavity and are located in the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones.
What are the purpose of paranasal sinuses?
They lighten the cranium and act as important resonance chambers for speach.
What is the pharynx?
the throat
What is the larynx?
the voice box; its attached to the hyoid bone and to the trachea. inside the larnyx, a pair of vocal cords regualtes the passage of air and performs an role in sound protection.

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