Glossary of anatomy module objectives
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- describe the structure of cardiac muscle
- describe the structure of the main types of blood vessels and relate this to their function
- capillaries are thin walled for permeability
arteries have thick walls with a lot of elastic tissue to withstand high blood pressure
arterioles have a lot of smooth muscle in the middle layer of the walls for contraction to change the diameter of the vessel to allow blood flow in a specific area of to change the blood pressure
venules and veins are 3 layered but are thinner than arteries.
- name the 2 principle body cavities and outline the subdivisions of each.
- dorsal body cavity - cranial cavity / vertebral cavity
ventral body cavity - thoracic cavity / abdominopelvic cavities
- list the four tissue types
- epithelium - covering and lining of body surfaces and glands
connective tissue - supports and binds internal structures
muscle tissue- specialised for movement
nervous tissue - specialised for transmission of electrical impulses around the body
- describe the structure of a typical synovial joint and label a diagram
- fluid filled cavity,(synovial cavity)
surrounded by a wrapping (joint capsule) the capsule is lined with a synovial membrane and is filled with synovial fluid.
- identify the nerve supply to the muscles involved in ventilation.
- the phrenic nerve innervate the diaphragm
the intercostal nerve innervates the external intercostal muscles.
- state the 2 tubes the pharynx runs into inferiorly.
- the eosophagus and the larynx
- outline the difference between single and multi layered epithelia in terms of structure and function.
- single - layered - epithelium - forms a very thin barrier, specialised for allowing the movement of materials.
multi - layered - epethilium - specialised for protection and great wear and tear.
- name the blood vessels serving the major organ systems of the body.
- carotid arteries serve the heart
brachial and subclavian arteries serve the lungs
hepactic arteries serve the liver
mesentric arteries serve the abdomen
femoral arteries serve the femur
- describe the structure of a muscle fibre
- connective tissue coverings - endomysium - each fibre
perimysium - bundles of fibres
epimysium - outer wrapping
- describe the location and structure of the bronchial tree
- the trachea branches into 2 primary bronchi each of which serves a lung. they then branch into secondary bronchi each serving a lobe and then they branch further into tertiary bronchi that serve a segment of a lobe. they then branch into smaller and smaller vessels calles bronchioles and finally divide into the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs.
- label a typical long bone and describe tha various parts
- epiphysis - spongy bone at each end of the long bone.
diaphysis - the long shaft between each epiphysis
periosteum - the outside sheath of the bone
endosteum the ling of the cavity of the bone
medullary cavity - marrow cavity of the bone
epiphyseal plate - site of growth in bones of children
epiphyseal line - scar of the epiphyseal plate when groth has ceased
- list the functions of the circulatory system.
- to transport substances between the external environment and the individual cells of the body. to supply cells with oxygen, nutrients and remove waste products.
- state the functions of the tongue
- during chewing the tongue grips the food and repositions it between teeth. mixes food with saliva and forms it into a compact mass then pushes the food into the pharynx by swallowing.
- list the components of the lymphatic system.
- lymph vessels, lymph nodules, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils
- name and label a diagram of the organs of the digestive system, including the divisions of the alimentary canal and accessory organs.
- ingestion and digestion; parotid gland and duct
oral cavity , pharynx, sublingual and submandibular glands and ducts.
digestion; esophagus, liver, stomach, hepactic duct, gallbladder,pancreas, common bile duct, duodenum, splenic flexure.
digestion and absorption; hepactic flexure, ascending colon, transverse colon, jejenum, descending colon, ileum, ileocecal junction
elimination; cecum, sigmoid colon, appendix, rectum.
- list the functions of the lymphatic system.
- transports fluids throughout the body. collects the fluid that leaks from the capillaries and returns it to the venous circulation. carries fat from the digestive tract to the venous circulation. lymph nodes filter and remove foreign substances. produces antibodies and lymphocytes for protection.
- outline the distribution of lymph nodes in the body.
- superficially - the inguinal, axillary, and cervical regions
deep - deep arteries and viscera.
- describe the distribution of lymph vessels in the body.
- lymph vessels are found everywhere in the body except; bones, teeth, bone marrow, cartilage, epidermis and the CNS.
- identify the pleura and the interplueral cavity.
- double layeered serosa covering the thoracic wall, superior face of the diaphragm, heart and between the lungs. parietal pleura forms lateral walls of the mediastinal enclosure and root of the lungs visceral pluera covers external lung surface.
- name the three major pairs of salivary glands and where they are located.
- parotid gland - anterior to the ear between the masseter and the skin.
submandibular gland - medial aspect of the mandibular body.
sublingual glands - anterior to the submandibular gland under the tongue.
- state the functions of teeth.
- chewing tears and grinds food to break it down.
- define the main terms used in anatomy to describe position, direction, and names of body parts.
- superior/cranial - toward the head.
inferior/caudal - away from the head (below)
anterior/ventral - toward or at the front
posterior/dorsal - toward or at the back
medial - toward or at the midline
lateral - away from midline
intermediate - between medial and lateral
proximal - closer to the origin of the body part or point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
distal - opposite of proximal
superficial - toward or at surface
deep - away from surface
- trace the pathway of blood flow through the heart and describe the role of the valves.
- there are no valves at the entrance to the atria so blood continually drains into them. during diastole blood flows through the open AV valves into the ventricles. near the end of diastole the atrtia contract, forcing more blood into the ventricles. this is followed by contraction of the ventricles (systole) which closes the AV valves.
- state the functions of the respiratory system.
- facilitates exchange of gases between the atmosphere, the blood and the cells. supplies oxygen to the cells for energy-yielding reactions and removes carbon dioxide.
- name the examples of connective tissues found in the body.
- fills the spaces between organs, constitutes the blood, cartilage and bone
- name the chambers of the heart and indicate the position of the valves.
- right upper atrium - left upper ventricle
right lower ventricle - left lower atrium
the tricuspid valve is located in the right upper atrium
the bicuspid (mitral) valve is located in the lefter upper ventricle
- define a joint
- the point at which 2 bones come into contact
- describe briefly the structure and function of each type of bony tissue
- spongy bone - consists of trabeculae (thin bony plstes forming a latticework) osteocytes found in lucanae. found at the ends of long bones and under compact bone.
compact bone - forms a thin covering over all bones. specialised for support and strength weight baring and ligament/tendon attachment. consists of haversian systems that run through the bone lengthwise.
- list the several effectors innervated by the autonomic nervous system and describe their response to stimulation by the autonomic nerves.
- dilates the lungs
increases heart rate
ejaculation of the penis
- identify the structures of the respiratory system.
- nasal cavity, the pharynx, the larynx, the trachea, the bronchi, the bronchioles and the lungs.
- name the 2 divisions of the skeleton
- axial - head, bony thorax, vertebral column
appendicular - pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, limbs
- list the components of the circulatory system.
- the heart
- differentiate between the 3 regions of the pharynx.
- nasopharynx - extends from the internal nares to the soft palate.
the oropharynx extends from the soft palate to the level of the hyoid bone.
the laryngopharynx extends from the oropharynx to the oesophogus and the larynx.
- describe the spinal cord in cross section and breifly outline the functions of each area.
- the spinal cord contains both white and grey matter. the white matter is composed of axons and the grey area is composed of cell bodies.the white matter sends and receives information.
- name the 3 divisions of the pharynx
- oropharynx, laryngopharynx, nasopharynx
- define anatomy
- the study of the structure of the body
- describe the structure of the internal and external nose.
- the external nose - a framework of bone and cartilage.
the internal nose - a cavity in the skull.
- list several functions of each muscle type
- smooth - perstalsis, contraction of organs, mechanical digestion
cardiac - contraction of the heart muscle
skeletal - movement, contraction of muscles
- outline what happens to the epiglottis during swallowing.
- the epiglottis 9flap of cartilage) closes off the trachea entrance to prevent food passing into the respiratory tubes.
- label a diagram of the skeleton
- skull (head)
scapula (shoulder blade)
ulna (inside forearm)
radius (outside forearm)
pelvic girdle (hips)
vertebral column (spine)
sacrum & coccyx (tail bones)
tibia (inside leg)
fibula (outside leg)
- list the 2 components of the autonomic nervous system
- the sympathetic division
the parasympathetic division
- describe the microscopic structure of skeletal muscle
composed of muscle cells (muscle fibres), connective tissue,nerves, and blood vessels.
- name the 3 groups of tonsils found in and near the pharynx. state the type of tissue that the tonsils are composed of.
- pharyngeal tonsils, palatine tonsils, lingual tonsils, tubal tonsils
they are made of lymphatic tissue.
- identify the muscles involved in ventilation.
- the diaphragm and the external intercostals.
- name the major bone shapes
- name and give examples of 3 major joint categories
- synovial; plane, hinge, ball and socket, condyloid, saddle, pivot
fibrous; suture, syndemosis, somphosis
cartiligenous; synchrodroses, symphysis
- state the differences between gross and microscopic anatomy
- gross anatomy= large structures you can see.
microscopic anatomy = minute structures which can only be seen with a microscope.
- name the 4 parts of the stomach.
- cardia (small cardiac region)
- describe, and label a diagram of the general structure of the wall of the digestive tract.
- comprises of 4 layers (tunics) with nerve networks (plexuses) and secretory glands embedded in it. these exocrine glands secrete mucus and enzyme containing juices to moisten and digest the food.
- describe briefly the range of movements possible at synovial joints
- name the 2 types of motor neurons, indicate which type is involved whith voluntary control and which is involved in involuntary control.
- somatic nervous system; voluntary control, carries impulses to skeletal muscle
autonomic nervous system; involuntary control, carries impulses to glands and cardiac and smooth muscle.
- briefly outline the general functions of the digestive system.
- breaks down the large food molecules into smaller molecules which can be absorbed (transferred) into the bloodstream and delivered to the cells.
- name the 2 types of bony tissue
- give a brief description of the function of each: medulla, pons, midbrain, reticular formation, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum.
- medulla - heart rate, breathing, swallowing, vomitting
pons - reflex centre
midbrain - visual reflex centre/part of auditory pathway
reticular formation - controls cyclic activities, sleep/wake cycle etc
thalamus - influences mood and movement
hypothalamus - regulates endocrine function, maintains homeostasis
cerebral cortex - higher functions, voluntary movements, perception of stimuli, learning, memory, abstract thought
basal ganglia - control of muscle activity and posture
cerebellum - control of muscle movement and tone
- describe the gross structure of skeletal muscle
- belly - made of muscle fibres
tendons - made of connective tissue
- outline how the body is organised from cells through tissues and organs to systems.
- chemicals - organelles - cells - tissuess - organs - organ systems - organism.
- indicate where the autonomic nerves leave the central nervous system
- autonomic nerves do not run directly from the spinal cord to their effector, but feed into one integration point (a ganglion) en route
- identify the opening from the eustachian tube into the pharynx and briefly outline the function of this opening.
- a eustachian tube runs from the middle of each ear to the throat. it equalises the ear pressure with atmospheric pressure every time you swallow.
- identify terms that descibe surface markings found on bones
- trochanter - large process where muscles/tendons attach
condyle - rounded projection articulates with another bone
crest - narrow ridge to which muscles attach
head - head of bone
tubercle - small round process for muscle attachment
process - sharp projection for muscle attachment
foramen - opening for blood vessels, nerves etc to pass through
fossa - shallow concave to articulate with the head of another bone
sinus - cavity to decrease the weight of the bone
- recognise the major characteristics used to name muscles
- size; vastus (huge) maximus (large) longus (long) minimus (small) brevis (short)
shape; deltoid (triangular) rhomboid, lattissimus (wide) trapezius
direction; rectus (straight) transverse(accross) oblique(diagonal) orbicularis(circular)
number of origins; biceps (2 heads) triceps (3 heads) quadriceps(4 heads)
- describe the direction in which impulses are transmitted along neurons.
- the dendrites receive the impulses from other neurons then carry it to the soma, the impulse then travels along the axon to the synaptic terminals.
- describe the size and location of the heart.
- the heart is located posterior to the sternum, laterally to the left of the midline in the mediastinum within the thoracic cavity.
- describe the structure of the larynx and describe it's function in respiration and voice production.
- the larynx provides an open airway. acts as a switching station for air and food into the proper channels. voice production.
- locate some of the major peripheral nerves
- the phrenic nerve- runs down laterally to the left of the spinal cord to the diaphragm
the sciatic nerve runs from the sacral plexus posteriorly down the leg
the femoral nerve runs from the sacral plexus anteriorly down the leg.
- locate the four lobes of the cerebral cortex and state a function of each
- occipital -sight
frontal -involuntary control
- describe a membrane. Outline the differences between mucous and serous membranes.
- a membrane is a layer of epethilium and it's underlying connective tissue.
a serous membrane lines cavities that do not open to the exterior.
mucous membranes line cavities or tubes that do open to the exterior.
- state the relationship between the trachea, diaphragm, and oesophagus.
- the oesophagus lies posterior to the trachea and superior to the diaphragm.
- list the 6 types of synovial joints and give an example of each.
- plane joint - shoulder
saddle - thumb
hinge - finger
pivot - elbow
ball & socket - hip
condyloid - ankle
- name the 2 types of cells that make up nervous tissue
- neurons and supporting cells (neuroglia or glial cells)
- describe the relationship between the CNS and the PNS
- the PNS sends impulses through sensory neurons picked up by the sensory receptors to the CNS to be interpreted and analysed then sent to the effectors via the motor neurons in the PNS
- outline the basic structure and function of the nervous system
- the CNS = the brain and the spinal cord, acts as 'control headquarters' of body activity.
the PNS= nerves and receptors, receptors monitor the environment nerves cary the information to the CNS to muscles and glands.
- describe the structure of a generalised neuron and be able to label a diagram
- dendrites - make contact with terminals of other neurons.
soma - cell body contains nucleus
axon - transmitts electrical impulses from soma to synapse
synaptic terminals - release chemicals into the synapse
- list the components of blood, and outline their functions.
- blood is made up of plasma and formed elements (erythrocytes, luekocytes, thrombocytes) erythrocytes transport respiratory gases, luekocytes defend againts parasites and infections, thrombocytes are involved in clotting.
- outline the differences between sensory and motor neurons
- sensory neurons;take impulses from the skin, muscles, organs and connective tissues to the CNS
motor neurons; carry impulses from the CNS to muscles and glands
- state the parts of the body supplied by the cranial nerves and the spinal nerves.
- cranial nerves; - head
spinal nerves; - rest of the body
- give examples of organs found within each of the body cavities
- dorsal - brain/ spinal cord
ventral - heart, lungs, large and small intestines, liver, spleen, bladder etc
- descibe how muscles bring about body movement
- contraction of the muscle draws the moveable bone toward the stationary bone.
- state the location of the respiratory control centres in the brain.
- the pons
- outline the structure and function of the trachea.
- the trachea is an airway that runs anterior to the eosophagus. has rings of cartilage to stop it collapsing.
- define the 3 types of muscle tissue, compare their cell structure and indicate where each is found in the body.
- smooth mucle -single fusiform,lines blood vessels and organs
cardiac muscle - branching cells, heart muscle
skeletal muscle - elongated, attached to skeleton
- trace the coronary circulation and explain the need for it.
- the right side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs (pulmonary circulation) while, at the same time, the left side of the heart pumps blood out around the body (systemic circulation)
- describe the location of the major divisions of the brain, i.e the brainstem, diencephalon, cerebrum, and cerebellum.
- brainstem; -inferior part of the brain
diencephalon; - between brainstem and cerebrum
cerebrum; - superior part of the brain
cerebellum inferior/posterior part of brain
- describe the location of the lungs. compare the shape and size of the 2 lungs and describe their division into lobes.
- found in the thoracic cavity. each lung in it's own pleural cavity. connected to the mediastinum. laterally flanks the heart. deep to the ribcage. superior to the diaphragm.
the left lung is smaller than the right lung to accomodate for the heart.
they are divided into lobes - the left lung has 2 lungs and the right lung has 3 lungs.
- name and describe the 3 types of sections that can be made through the body.
- sagittal - divides body into left and right
transverse - divides the body into superior and inferior
frontal - divides body into anterior and posterior
- describe the function of the supporting cells.
- wrap around the axons of neurons - support, protect and nourish neurons
- outline the broad functions of the central nervous system
- coordinates incoming sensory information, and within fractions of a second, dictates the responses of the body.
- label a diagram of a generalized cell
- plasma membrane - barrier of cell
nucleus - contol centre
mitochondria - energy
rough endoplasmic reticulum - dotted exterior of ribosomes involved in protein synthesis
smooth endoplasmic reticulum - involved in lipid synthesis
glogi apparatus - packages molecules
lyosomes - destroys invaders and worn out cell parts
- describe the need for a circulatory system in the human body
- since humans are basically a collection of cells, the health of the body is dependant on the health of it's cells, and therefore the efficiency of the circulatory system.
- state 5 functions of the skeletal system.
- 1. support
4. blood cell production
5. mineral storage
- list the components of the central nervous system.
- the brain and spinal cord
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