Glossary of anatomy chapter 1 2

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4 Types of tissue
Epithelial, Connective, Muscular, Nervous Special jobs for each. (Every Cat Makes Noodles)
What is the Epithelial tissue?
"Lining to the Dress" SILK packed close together so nothing gets through and very little intercellular matter protection, secretion, absorbtion, sensation
FX of Squamous?
LINES: heart, internal surfaces of blood and lymph nodes and air cells of lungs and major body cavities. FX: rapid diffusion of gasses. GASS OFF
FX of Cubodial and Columnar cells
FX: Secretion and Absorbtion MO: Cubes and Columns Make up glads, terminal ends of bronchioles, line gastrointestinal tract. Some have cilia that increase absorbtion
FX: Stratified Epitheliam -- Where is it and What does it do?
Layered skin, oral cavity, pharynx, vocal folds, esophagus STRONG PROTECTION - WONT LET THINGS THROUGH Basal Cells: Cubodial/columnar -- outermost cells are flat squamous cells containilng keratin (protein that is insoluble in aqueous solutions and resistant to chemicals)
FX: Mesothelial
Lines body cavities * cells more columnar *LInes peritoneal cavity (abdomen) , pleural cavity (lung part of chest, and Pericardial cavity (heart part of chest) STRON PROTECTIVE LINING
What is Matrix
Produced by Cells Can be Protein fibers or ground substance (minerals, salt) or fluid
Dense Connective Tissue Types
Tendons, ligaments, facia, Hyaline Cartilage, elastic cartilage, fibro cartilage, bone
Tendons: MO
FX and Morphology
flat, sheet like tendon -- diaphragm
4 identifiers of Cartilage
1.MATRIX flexible (protioglycans and collagen) 2.Does not repair well if injured, but does replace with wear 3. Precurser to bone, (bone begins as cartilage) 4.Has tensile strength (resists separation) and compression strenghth(retains form) 3 types
Hyaline Cartilage
*Bluish, shiny *covers surfaces of bones where joints articulate (move: knee, hip) *Poor blood supply *Calcification/ossification occurs over time *Parts of larynx, trachea, cartilaginous portion of ribs, bronchial tube
Elastic Cartilage
Yellow Flexible, rubbery consistency calcification is rare Ear, external auditory meatus, eppiglottis, Eustacian tube, parts of larynx
Fibrous: Imovable. Bones nearly touch. bound by thin connective tissue. Found in skull, facial bones, teeth in socket, sutures in the skull
Muscle origin
fixed attachment, usually most porximal
Muscle insertion
structure acted upon, usually most distal insertion moves towards origin
Muscle behavior
Always pull, never push can be agonis for one movement and antagonist for another
Smooth Muscle FX and MO
Long fibers without bands Involuntary Movement (stomach, intestines) Wave like contraction (digestion)
Muscle Fiber arrangement
Dictates strength and movement Parallel (long, slender muscle fibers Bicepts, rectus abcomus (six pac) Radiating - fan shaped Pectoralis major Penniform -- extend obliquely from either side of a central tendon -- diaphram
What is long slender muscle fibers?
Parallel, Bicepts rectus abdominus (six pack)
What does nervous tissue do? FX
Transmit information Controls (muscles, glands, internal org) 10% neurons - primary nerve cell 90% glial cells (support cells)
Near the surface
or relating to the part of the nervous system ouside the brain and spinal cord. After a neve exits the spinal cord (bony structure )it becomes a part of this system
Includes head
vertebral column
What does the Axial Skeleton include?
Head, vertebral column, sternum, and ribs
Including Shoulder girdle
pelvic girdle
Basic Cell Structure
Nucleus: DNA Organelles: Housekeeping carry out special processes (generate energy, protein synthesis, etc...) Cell Membrane: Container controls contents of cellular fluid-- High water content inside and outside a cell
Toward the front of the body
Anterior/Frontal or Ventral (quadraped)
cells that clump together with similar function is...
4 Types of Epithelial Tissue
what is the simplest epithelial tissue?
Types of Eipthelieum - Based on sites in the body
Epithelial Proper Endothelial Mesothelial
FX: Connective Tissue
COMPLEX FX: *connects/binds structures together *supports the body *aids in body maintenance
Marks of Connective Tissue
Few Cells Lots of Interacellular /intercellular Matrix Matrix determins function
4 types of connective tissue
Loose Dense cartilage/bone blood
Loose Connective Tissue
Areolar and Adipose
supports most organs in body Widely distributed under skin Fills space between organs and muscles Mesh like
Adipose Tissue
Fat usually lies just beneath the skin
Dense connective tissue
Closely packed fibers can be *Collagenous --like glue and gelatin *Elastic -Easily streatched *Reticular -Comb-like that take on mesh pattern
Tendons: MO, FX and Morphology
Tough Intertwined parallel fibers (collagenous) * always associated with a muscle -bind muscle to bones, cartilage or other muscle *Morphology (shape) similar to the muscle it is attached to
Tendon Facts
Very Strong - can withstand 2x streach that a muscle can withstand Muscles willl be damaged before a tendon is damaged
Liagmets MO 2 kinds
Very strong and dense Visceral and Skeletal Some stretch (yellow) Some dont stretch (white)
Type of ligaments that bind bone to bone
Skeletal ligaments
Type of ligaments that bind organs together or hold in place
VisceraL Ligaments
Sheet like connective tissue that organized muscle fibers into functional groups binds groups of muscles
What is sheet like connective tissue that organizes and binds muscles?
Fibro cartilage
Shock absorber Denser than other cart. Invertebral discs (between vertebrae of spinal cord) and temoporal-mandibular joint (TMJ)
Bone Features
Hardest of all connective tissue (lacunae collagen fibers and mineralized calcium e.g. calcium bonded to inoganic salts) 65% of bone is calcim which gives it rigidity and 30% is collagen which gives it strength Can be compact or spongy (spongy type has marrow that produces blood cells) Bone provides the frame for the body and protection for the organs
rounded process of bone
Prominant ridge of bone
bone prominence
Sharp projection of bone
large bone projection
small rounded projection of bone
large rounded projection of bone
Cleft or deep groove of bone
Opening of bone
PIt or hollow of bone
Small pit like depression of bone
tube or passage way of bone
constriction near one end of the bone
Cavity with a bone
groove or furrow of the bone
Joint Typs by degree of movement
Synarthroidal/fibrous Amphiathroidal/cartilaginous Diathroidal/synovial
SLightly movable. Connected by cartilage. Between vertebrae and pelvic bones
Freely movable. Can be like ball and socket or hinge. Internal capsule. Secretes synovial fluid to libricate the joint.
Muscle FEatures
Contractile tissue Responsible for all movement Innervated by nerves that stimulate to activity 40% of body weight Connected to skeleton by tendons Morphology depends on function
Muscle that opposes a given movement
moving away from midline
moving toward the midline
muscle moving way from midline
muscle moving toward the midline
Muscle Rotation toward the midline
Medial rotation
Muscle rotation away from midline
Lateral Rotation
What is a Motor Unit?
One efferent/motor nerve fiber and the muscle fibers to which it attaches
Three types of muscles
Striated Smooth Cardiac
Striated Muscle MO and FX
Long fibers with evely spaces bands Provide voluntary movement 329 striated muscles all but 2 are paired (diaphram and procerus between eyebrows)
Cartiac Muscle
found only in heart Involuntary but striated Self-excitable
Fan shaped muscle fiber
radiating -- Pectoralis Major
what muscle may extend obliquely from either side of a central tendon?
Penniform -- Diaphram
What does arrangement of muscle fiber dictate?
strength and movement
Epithelial Proper makes up
Skiln and Internal cavities connected to the skin
Endothelial Does what?
Lines blood vessels and makes up lymph system *Simple squamous shape lines blood vessels to provide smooth surface for ease of blood flow. *cubodial shape make sup lymph nodes since it's shape allows secretion
5 Types of Epithelial Tissue
Ciliated Squamous Cubodial Columnar Stratified
Toward the back of the body
Posterior or Dorsal (4 legged animals)
Toward the back
Toward the head
away from the head
Toward the head and further from the feet than any other part.
Superior Jack Black's head is superior to Jack Black's stomach
Situated below or closer to the feet than another part
Inferior Kenny's feet are inferior to Kenny's knees
Relating to or located near or on the surface
Superficial/External Madonna's Lips are superficial to madonna's teeth
Internal Within the body or one of it's parts
Deep Internal Thinker's Brain ... deep to Thinker's Skull
Lying or extending toward the middle of the body related to some other body part.
Medial Brad's nose is medial to Brad's right eye
Lying away from the middle of the body related to something else-- from the side
Lateral Lateral view of Yoda's face
Of or relating to the brain and spinal cord
Near the surface, or relating to the part of the nervous system ouside the brain and spinal cord. After a neve exits the spinal cord (bony structure )it becomes a part of this system
Includes head, vertebral column, sternum and ribs and HYOID (under chin)
Axial skeleton
Including Shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle, arms and legs
Appendicular Skeleton
What does the Appendicular Skeleton include?
What are "Planes of Reference?"
Anatomists cut the body in different sections. this is the way they name the type of cut they made so you will know what you are looking at. frontal saggital transverse
What do anatomists call the sections or the type of cut they make on the body?
Planes of Reference
When teh body or structure is divided into front and back...
Frontal/Coronal Plane
Plane of Body divided into front/back
Frontal/Coronal Plane
What is sagittal plane?
Cut left and right side (down the middle) Think sit-ups arrow saggitarious
What plane is divided into top and bottom?
Transverse/Horizontal Plane
What are 4 elements of cells?
Basic unit of the body 100 trillion Some die off and are replaced (skin) Others are not replaceable (brain cells/neuron)
Second dummy question
Second dummy answer
Third dummy question
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