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Glossary of alcohol toxicity, herbal agents, drug names

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Ethylene glycol is converted to ------- ------ by alcohol dehydrogenase. This product can lead to acidosis and nephrotoxicity.
oxalic acid.
Alcohol dehyrogenase also converts methanol to formaldehyde and formic acid, which can cause severe ----- and damage to the -------.
acidosis. retina
Ethanol competes with ethylene glycol and methanol (if present) for alcohol dehydrogenase. ADH action on EtOH produces -------.
acetaldehyde
What symptoms does acetaldehyde cause?
nausea, vomiting, headache, hypotension
Acetaldehyde itself can be metabolized by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase to ----- -----.
acetic acid.
Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase is inhibited by what drug?
disulfiram.
Give the clinical uses for the following herbal agents.
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echinacea clinical use and toxicities
common cold; GI distress, dizziness, headache
ephedra
CNS and cardiovascular stimulation; arrhythmias, stroke and seizures at high doses.
feverfew clinical use and toxicities
migraine; gi distress, mouth ulcers, antiplatelet actions
ginko
GI distress, anxiety, insomnia, headache, and antiplatelet actions
kava clinical use and toxicities
chronic anxiety; gi distress, sedation, ataxia, hepatotoxicity, phototoxicity, dermatotoxicity
milk thistle clinical use and toxicities
viral hepatitis, loose stools
saw palmetto clinical use and toxicities
benign prostatic hyperplasia; gi distress, dec libido, hypertension
St. John's wort clinical use and toxicities
mild to moderate depression; gi distress and phototoxicity, serotonin syndrome with SSRI's; inhibits P450 syndrome
dehyroepiandrosterone clinical use and toxicities
symptomatic improvement in females with SLE or AIDS; androgenization (premenopausal), estrogenic (postmenopausal), feminization (young men)
Melatonin clinical use and toxicities
jet lag, insomnia; sedation, suppresses midcycle LH, hypoprolactinemia
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Give the toxicities for the following herbal agents.
0
echinacea
GI distress, dizziness, and headache
feverfew
GI distress, mouth ulcers, antiplatelet actions
kava
GI distress, sedation, ataxia, hepatotoxicity, phototoxicity, dermatotoxicity
milk thistle
loose stools
saw palmetto
GI distress, decreased libido, hypertension
St. John's wort
GI distress and phototoxicity; serotonin syndrome with SSRIs
dehyroepiandrosterone
Androgenization (premenopausal women), estrogenic effects (postmenopausal), feminization (young men)
Melatonin
Sedation, suppresses midcycle LH, hypoprolactinemia
-ane
inhalational general anesthetic. Halothane
-azepam
benzodiazepine. Diazepam
-azine
phenothiazine (neuroleptic, antiemetic). Chlorpromazine
-azole
antifungal. Ketoconazole
-barbital
barbiturate. Phenobarbital
-caine
local anesthetic. Lidocaine
-cillin
penicillin. Methicillin
-cycline
antibiotic, protein synthesis inhibitor. Tetracycline
-ipramine
tricyclic antidepressant. Imipramine
-navir
protease inhibitor. Saquinavir
-olol
beta antagonist. Propranolol
-operidol
butyrophenone (neuroleptic). Haloperidol
-oxin
cardiac glycoside (inotropic agent). Digoxin
-phylline
methylxanthine. Theophylline
-pril
ACE inhibitor. Captopril
-terol
beta-2 agonist. Albuterol
-tidine
H2 antagonist. Cimetidine
-triptyline
tricyclic antidepressant. Amitriptyline
-tropin
pituitary hormone. Somatotropin
-zosin
alpha-1 antagonist. Prazosin

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