Glossary of abnormal child psychology
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- Acute Stress Disorder
- A form of anxiety disorder characterized by the development of anxiety, dissociation, and other symptoms within one month following exposure to an extremely traumatic stressor.
- adaptational Failure
- failure to master or progress in accomplishing developmental milestones.
- ADHD-C: combined type
- A subtype of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder characterized by a combination of inattentive symptoms and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms.
- ADHD-HI: predominately hyperactive-impulsive
- A subtype of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder characterized by predominatly hyperactive/impulsive symptoms.
- ADHD-PI: predominatly innatentive
- A subtype of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder characterized by predomenatly innatentive symptoms.
- Adolescent-limited path AL
- a develoopmental pathway to antisocial behavior whereby the child's antisocial behavior bbegins around pubety, contiues into asolescence, and later desists in young adulthood.
- Adolescent-onset conduct disorder
- A specific type of conduct disorder for which the charateristics are not exhibited prior to ten years of age.
- a form of anxiety characterized by a fear of being alone in, and avoiding, certain places or stiuations from which escape may be difficult or embarrassing, or in which help may be unavailable in the event of a panic attack.
- amplifier hypothesis
- the premise that stress may serve to amplify the maladaptive predispositions of parents, thereby disrupting family management practices and compromising the parents' ability to be supportive of their children.
- analogue research
- research that evaluates a specific variable of interest under conditions that only resemble or approximate the situation to which one wishes to generalize.
- antisocial behavior
- conduct problems
- antisocial personality disorder APD
- An adult disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of the rights of others, as well as engagement in multiple illegal behaviors.
- a mood state characterized by strong negative affect, bodily symptoms of tension, and apprehensive anticipation of future danger or misfortune.
- apprehensive expectation
- excessive and exaggerated worry and tension in the absence of conditions that would normally provoke such a reaction.
- evidence of some form of agreement on the part of a child to participate in a research study without the child's having the full understanding of the research that would be needed to give informed consent.
- the process of establishing and maintaining an emothional bond with parents or other significant care givers. this process in ongiong, typically between six and twelve months of age, and provdes infants with a secure, consistent base form which to explore and learn about their worlds.
- attentional capacity
- the amount of information in short-term memory to which one can attend.
- attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
- a disorder in which the individual consistently and repeatedly shows age-inappropriate behaviors in the two general categories of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity.
- Behavior+ Lens principle
- A principle which states that child psychopathology reflects a mix of actual child behavior and the lens through which it is viewed by others in the child's culture.
- behavior analysis or functional analysis of behavior
- an effort to identify as many factors as possible that could be contributing to a child's problem behavior, thoughts, and feelings, and to develop hypotheses about which ones are the most important and/or most easily changed.
- behavioral activation system
- a subsystem of the brain that activates behoavior in response to cues of reward or nonpunishment.
- behavioral assesment
- the evaluation of the child's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in specific settings, based on which hypotheses are formulated about the nature of the problem and what can be done about it.
- behavioral genetics
- a branch of genetics that investigates posssible connections between a genetic predisposition and observed behavior.
- behavioral inhibition
- the ability to delay one's initial reactions to events or to stop behavior once it has begun.
- behavioral inhibition system
- a subsystem of the brain that produces anxiety and indhibits ongoing behavior in the prescenceof novel events, innate fear stimuli and signals of nonreward or punishment.
- brain circuits
- paths made up of clusterihng neurons that connect one part of the brain to another.
- when one or more children expose another child repeatedly and over time to negative actions such as physical contact, words, making faces or dirty gestures, and intentional exclusion from a group.
- callous and unemtional interpersonal style
- a mode of social interactionthat is characterised by such traits as the absence of feelings of guilt, not showing enpathy and not showing emotions.
- case study
- an intesive and usually anecdotal observation and analysis of an individual subject
- categorical classification
- the diagnostic systems that are primarily based on informed professional consensus, which is an approach that has dominated and continues to dominate the field of child and adult psychopathology.
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