Glossary of World Studies Mid-term

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What are the boundries of the Fertile Crescent?
Persain Gulf & Mediteranian Sea In southwest Asia.
What two rivers frame mesapotamia? Which Way Do They Flow?
Tigris & Euphrates.Southeast.
What does mesapotamia mean?
The Land Between Two Rivers.
How did the two mesapotamian rivers help farming?
Left Silt through yearly flooding.
What were envinromental chalanges faced by mesapotamians?
-Unpredictable Flooding & Dryspells.
-No natural barriers
-limited natural reasources.
How did mesapotamians deal with their envinromental problems?
-built city walls out of mud bricks
What five charichteristics set the Sumerians apart from previous civilizations.
-advanced cities
-specialized workers
-complex institutions
-record keeping
-improved echnology
What is a city state
A country within a n empire
Name 5 sumerian city states.
What is a ziggurat
A temple in the center of a sumerian city , also functions as a city hall.
In and out of a period of war who led the city.
In: Appointed fighter
Out: The Priests
What did the sumerians belive awaited them in the afterlife.
"the land of no return"
What technological and intelectual innovations were the sumerians responsible for?
The Sail
The Plow
Among the first to use bronze
Math & Geometry
Artitectural innovations such as arches olumns and ramps + pyramid
Who Was Sargon
Defeated the city states of sumer in 2350 BC, spread sumerian culture past the ferile crescent.
Who created the worlds first empire?
Why did sargon's dynasty crumble?
internal fighting, invasions, famine.
Who was hammurabi, when did he rule?
Ruler of the Babylonian EMpire from 1792 to 1750. Created first uniform code of laws engraved in stone.
When did the sumerian empire fall, who succeaded it?
2000 B.C. Amorites invaded, Babylonian Empire.
What is polytheism?
Many gods
What is monotheism?
One God
What is a theocracy?
Rule is based on religios authority.
Who was gilgamesh?
-fifth king of Uruk
-said to create the legendary walls of uruk.
What is a pharaoh?
A ruler of ancient egypt.
Who was Thutmose III?
-step son of Hatshepsut
-may have murdered Hatshepsut
-Invaded eastward into Palastine & Syria
What is the nile river?
Flows from upper egypt (where the nile delta connects with the mediterqanian sea) to Nubia, it flooded at the same time every year to help the famers crops (this was called the gift of the nile)
Who was Hatsheput?
-second woman to take control of lower and upper egypt
-Ruled egypt's 18th dynasty
-ruled after thutmose II and before Thutmose 3
What did upper and lower egypt inclde, what made them different?
Upper Egypt:
-Higher off the ground than lower egypt.
-Skinny strip of land from the first cataract to where the river spreads into many branches.
Lower Egypt:
Nile Delta Region
Where was nubia located?
South of egypt between the first cataract of the nile.
Why was nubia important to egyptian trade?
Nubian Kingdoms linked Egypt and the mediteranian world to the interior of africa and to the red sea.
What was the first nubian kingdom?
Kerma 2000 B.C.
What did Menes do?
United Upper and Lower Egypt.
What did ramses do?
-Made a temple in new Egypt to Amon-Re in Karnak
-Ruled the empire created by Thutmose III
What are the jars that hold the mummies organs called?
Canopic Jars.
Who were the Hyksos?
-Ruled Egypt 1640-1570
-OInvaded Egypt
-Forced from egypt , and their brothers the hebrews were enslaved by the egyptians.
Who was Akhenaton?
-Pharoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt
Who was Tut?
-Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty
-Grave discovered almost completely intact.
What is another name for the fertile crescent?
the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
What is another name for the Indus Valley Civilization?
Harappan Civilizatiuon.
WHat was special about Harrapan Cities.
Grid System Plumbing.
What is special about harrapan writing.
It has not yet been deciphered.
What was special about social divisions in harrapan civilization?
no great social divisions.
What river was valuble to the Harrapans trade.
What did the harrapan people trade?
Gold , Silver, Semiprecious Stones. Cotton.
What is belived to be the main source for the end of the indus valley region.
What was the sacred litirature of the Aryans.
The Vedas.
What Are the Vedas.
Four Collections of Prayers Magic Spells, and instructions for performing rituals.
What is the rig veda?
The Largest of the four vedas consisting of 1028 hymns to the aryan gods.
What were the5 castes?
3-Traders and Landowners
Who was Mahabharata?
Buddah #1
What was the Guptan Empire?
-India's Second Empire
-During the riegn of the first three Guptas expirienced flourished arts&intillect etc.
What were oracle bones?
used for pray telling crap, animal bones.
What is the mandate of heavan?
Shit you need to get into heavan.
What was the Zhou Dynasty
-Based pon mandate of heaven
Controled lands that streatched past the Huang He River
-Thusted Noble to rule through fudelism.
What innovations did the zhou dynasty introduce?
Roads and Canals
-Coined Money
-Blast Furnaces and Cast Iron.
How did the Zhou dynasty fall?
Nobles gained more control over their territories and rule broke apart.
What was special about chinese writing.
No links between talk and write.
What is a stupa
Mounded stone structured built over holy relics (buddhism)
What were the silk roads?
Vast network of indian caravan routes, Indians made profits by acting as middlemen.
Who were the indo-europians?
Nomnadic people who came from the stepes.
What was sanskrit?
Indo-Europien Language.
Who were the Hittites?
Group of indo-europien speakers that occupied Anatolia (Asia Minor).
-Dominated southwest asia for 450 years.
-Signed peace treaty with egyprtians.
What were agricultural Benifits of anatolia?
rich in timber and agricultre
-mountains with important mineral deposits.
What is another name for anatolia.
Asia Minor.
What is a brahmin?
a member of the priests, the highest caste in aryan society.
What is the mahabarata?
Epic book that reflects the struggles that took place in india as the aryan kings worked to control indian lands.
What is reincarnation.
Process by which a soul is reeborn.
Who is sidhata Guatama.
What is enlightenment.
You know what it is.
What is the dharma?
Buddhist teachings.
What is Jainism?
Founded By Mahavira, belived everything in the universe had a soul.
-non violence
-work in trade
-tolarance of all religions.
What is nirvana
Buddhist enlightenment.
Who was King Minos.
-according to legend owned a lahf human/half bull
-Minoan Civilization was named after he!
What was Knossos.
Minoan Capital.
Who were the Phonecians?
-Most powerful traders along the mediteranian.
-shipbuilders and seafearers
Known for production of dye
-superb craftspeople
-Created the Alphabet.
What was Crete?
Large island on the southern edge of the Agean Sea.
What is palastine?
Land settled in mainly by the Phonecians.
Connected Asia And Africa
-Opened to the Mediteranian And Red Seas
-Promised Land.
What does the word Canaan mean?
Ancient Palastine (in hebrew)
What is the torah?
First five books of the Hebrew Bible.
Who was Abraham?
Father of the Hebrew People.
What did Moses Do?
Led the hebrews out of slavery.
What was the kingdom of Israel?
New kings (Saul David Salomon) uinited to form new kingdomSplit into two kingdoms in 922 B.C. because of solomons building projects.
What was Judah.
Second part of split Israel.
What was the Mauran Empire?
Founded in 321 B.C. by Chandragupta, who dethroned the unpopular Nanda King.
Seized all land from Magadha to the Indus
United india for the first rtime
-divided into four provinces, each led by a royal prince.
What is a monsoon?
strong wind.
Who were the persians?
-Based their empire on tolerance and diplomacy
-In 550 Cyrus non-destructively conquered persia's neighboring kingdoms.
Who was Darius?
a noble of the ruling dynasty in persia
-es5tablished well organized administration.
Who was Xerxes?
Darius's son and succesaor, invaded egypt, but was defeated.
What is filial piety?
Respect for parents and anccstors.
Who was confucious?
Founded confucionism.
Who was Lao Tzu?
Founded Taoism.
What is Taoism?
Left shit alone
What was legalism?
belived in a strong government.
What was the Qin Dynasty?
Replaced the Zhou Dynasty
-Ended internal battles, unified china
-Had several confuscist scholors murdered
-Built Great wall of China
Who were the Myceneans?
-Indo-europians who migrated onto the greek mainland.
What was the trojan war?
War between Mycaneens and RTroy
-One of the last mycanean battle campaigns.
-wrote the Illiad, the odysy
-Blind storyteller
What is a polis?
A city State, fundamental political unit in ancient greece.
What is an acropolis?
raised city hall (greek)
What is an agora?
Greek marketplace
What is an oligarchy?
Government ruled by highest members of society.
Radical Idealists
In Sparta, messenians became peasants forced to live on the land they worked, like serfs.
What was a hoplite?
Focos of a phalynx infantry.
What were the persian wars.
Wars between greece and Persia, began in iona.
-Greek s won, bod became lethargic.
Greek City Involved in persian wars.
Greek pass crucial to greeks succes in the persian wars.
island involved in persian war.
Son of David
Most Powerful of Hebrew Kings
-Beautified the Capital of Jerusalum
-Badly Strained israels finances
Pholosophersummarized all knowledge of his time
School founded by Epicrus
-Belived real objects were only those percived by the five sences
-Belived in harmony with body and mind
Founded by Zeno
-People should live in harmony with god
Who was alexander the great?
Melded the conquered lands of the greeks
-Died at 32
-Conquered Macedonia
What was Macedonia
-Kingdom located north of greek
-Greeks looked down on Macedonians
-Shrewed and Fearless Kings
Who Was Phillip II?
-King of Macedonia in 359 B.C. 23 years old
-Invaded, and gained control of Greece
-Stabbed in336
What does helenistic mean?
Greek Culture, blended with Egyyptian, Persian, and Indian.
What was Alexandria?
the Foremost center of commerce in the hellenistic civilization.
What is a republic?
powers are in the hands of elected officials.
group of countries under one power.
highest member of society in rome.
common roman farmer.
an official elected by plebians
One of the two powerful roman officials, veto!
Aristocratic form of Rome's government, 300 members, great influence over foreign and domestic policy.
Large Roman military unit?
A leader who had absolute power in a time of war.
Wrote the Aeneas.
Punic Wars?
-wars between Rome and Carthage
-First for control of Sicily and the western mediteranian.
2)General Hanniball to avenge Carthage's earlyewr defeat.
3)Romans laid seige on Carthage.
Carthinian General
What was the first triumvarate?
Tiberius, Gaius, Julius Ceasar
What was the second triumvarate.
Octavian, Mark Antony, Lepidus.
Pax Romana?
Period of roman peace.
--90% of people engaged in farming
Augustus (Octavian)?
unchallanged ruler of rome during pax romana
-stabalized the frontier
-glorified rome
-paid workers to manage government
Dispersal of the jews. Jews were driven to exile by the romans.
Fought 3 rivals for control of rome.
Converted to christianity on the day before his death.
A soldier who is paid to fought in a foreign army
Question Moral charichter
-The unexamined life is not worth living.
-student of socrates
-Wrote the Republic

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