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Glossary of Weathering and soil 2

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breaking down of rock and other substances at earth's surface
weathering
movement of rock particles by wind, water, ice or gravity
erosion
2 types of weathering
mechanical (break cookie in 2)

chemical (dough - heat- cookie)
the type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces is called ________ weathering
mechanical
List 5 forces of mechanical weathering
freezing , thawing, releasing pressure, growth of plants, action of animals,
what is abrasion
grinding away of rock particles carried by water, ice, wind and gravity
ice wedging cycle -
1. water seeps into cracks
2. _______
3. ice widens cracks
4. ________
2. freezes, forms ice & expands

4. melts, seeps deeper and freezes and thaws over and over
the process that breaks down rock through chemical change is _______ weathering
chemical
list 5 agents of chemical weatehring
water, oxygen, co2, living organisms, acid rain
t or f
chemical weathering produces rock particles with the SAME mineral makeup as the rock they came from
FALSE
it causes iron to rust
oxygen
it's caused by pollution
acid rain
it's the most important agent
water
it forms carbonic acid
carbon dioxide
lichens are one example
living organisms
t or f
water weathers rock by gradually dissolving it
TRUE
oxygen weathers rock through a process called
chemical weathering
list two kinds of rock that are easily weathered by carbonic acid
marble & limestone
how do plants dissolve rock
plants dissolve rock by producing a weak acid that slowly dissolve rock around the roots of a plant
the most importnat factors that determine the rate of weathering are type of rock and ______
climate
t or f
the minerals that make up a rock determine how fast it weathers
TRUE
a rock that is full of tiny, connectd air spaces is said to be
PERMEABLE
why does a permeable rock weather chemically at a fast rate
a permeable rock weathers chemically at a fast rate because as water seeps through the spaces in the rock, it removes dissolved material formed by weathering
why does chemical weathering occur more quickly in a hot climate
chemical weathering occurs more quickly in a hot climate because heat produces moisture & rain. The rainfall provides the water needed for chemical changes
what is weathering
the breaking down of rocks/substances on earth's surface
what is erosion
movement of ice particles by wind, water, ice or gravity
what is mechanical weathering
when rocks are physically broken into smaller pieces
small pieces have the _____ compsition (make up)
same

examples - cracked/peeling in layers
name 4
forces of mechanical weathering (breaks rocks into pieces by doing this)
freezing and thawing
releasing pressure
growth of plants
action of animals
mechanical weathring works
fast or slow?
slowly
what is the most cause of weathering
freezing and thawing of water
water seeps into cracks and expand when frozen and actics like a ____
wedge
what is ice wedging
when wedge of ice widens and cracks
what is chemical weathering
breaks down rocks due to chemical change
what is the main agent (cause) of chemical weathering
water
what is the most important cause of dissolving rock
oxygen
oxidation in rust - makes rock soft & crumbly
c02 (cardon dioxide)
carbonic acid
living organisms
plant roots produce acids that discove rock
acid rain
what are factors?
factors that determine how fast rock weathers
what is permeable
allows water to seep in easily due to air spaces
mechanical and chemical weathering happen _____ in wet places
faster
_____ weathering happens faster at higher temperatures
chemical
some organisms make
humas
examples of life in soil
plant roots, earthworms, fungi, bacteria, ants, animals, insects
what is litter
the loose layer of dead plant leaves and stems on the surface of the soil
what are decomposers
soil organism that breaks down the remains of organisms and digests them
4 main types of decomposers
fungi, protists, bacterais, worms
different climates and bedrock (plant life) determine what?
type of soil
soil is classified by _____, ______ and _______
climate, region and composition
7 major types of soil in N.A.
tundra soils, Northern Forest soils, Prairie soils, mountain soils, southern forest soil, desert soil, tropical soil
the loose, weathered material on Earth' surface in which plants can grow is
soil
how does soil form
soil forms as rock is broken down by weathering and mixes with other materials on the surface
the solid layer of rock beneath the soil is called
bedrock
what two factors determine the type of rock particles and minerals in any given soil
bedrock and the type of weathering
what are the 3 types of weathered rock particles found in soil
sand, silt, clay
the decayed organic material in soil is called
humus
list the soil particles from largest to smallest

sand, gravel, clay, silt (put these in order)
gravel, sand, silt, clay
soil that is made up of about equal parts of clay, sand, and silt is called
loam
what is the makeup of soil horizon A
topsoil
what is the makeup of soil horizon B
subsoil
what is the makeup of soil horizon C
rock particles
how do soil organisms improve soil
by mixing the soil and making spaces in it for air and water
T or F
animals contribute most of the organic remains that form humus
f
as plants shed leaves, they form a loose layer called
litter
soil organisms that turn dead organic matter into humus are called
decomposer
list the main soil decomposers (4)
fungi, protists, bacteria, worms
give 2 examples of fungi
molds, mushrooms
t or f
earthworms do most of the work of mixing humus with other materials in soil
t
how can burrowing mammals improve soil
by breaking up hard, compacted soil and mixing humus through it
what kind of soil is best for growing plants
loam
what did george washington carver teach the farmers in the south
he taught new methods of soil conservation
define erosion
the process by which water, ice, wind or gravity moves weathered rock and soil
MOVEMENT
define weathering
the chemical and physical processes that BREAK DOWN rock at earth's surface
list 2-3 ways in which plant roots are involved in weather of rocks and/or making soil
1. hold soil in place
2. acids - break down rocks
define abrasion
GRINDING away of rock by other rock particles carried in water, ice or wind
what is contour plowing
is plowing fields along the surves of a slope to prevent soil loss
when ______ becomes dissolved in rainwater and sinks into the soil, the result is an acid that can weather marble
carbon dioxide
an area's ________ and plant life determine what type of soil forms
climate
define humus
dark colored organic material in soil
what is the dust bowl
the area of the great plains where wind erosion & drought caused soil loss during the 1930's
t or f
the most important agent of chemical weathering is abrasion.
**if false, give correct answer
FALSE

*water
t or f
carbon dixoide is the gas that causes iron to oxide
f

*oxygen
t or f
freezing and thawing are chemical weathering
f

*mechanical
t or f
acide rain is a form of chemical weathering
t
how do plants caused mechanical weathering?
by entering the spaces in the rock and growing, they break the rock into pieces
how does contour plowing conserve soil
by slowing down runoff of excess rainfall and prevents it from washing away
how could another dust bowl occur? what 2 factors would contribute?
by farmers plowing again, exposing the soil during a drought, so the soil will blow away.
1. plowing to expose soil
2. drought and heavy winds
what CHEMICAL WEATHERING evidence might you observe on a rock that contains iron
the rion in the rock would ruse and water would dissolve it because of oxidation
what MECHANICAL weather would you observe on a rock that contains iron
freezing and thawing would split the rock in pieces
what are some factors that help weathering
heat, cold, water, ice, oxygen, carbon dioxide
what do weathering and eroision work together to do
wear down and carry away rocks
what are some examples of mechanical weathering
cracked, peeling in layers
what are some forces of mechanical weathering
freezing & thawing
releasing pressure
plant growht
actions of animals
abrasion
does mechanical weathering work fast or slow
slow
what is the main agent that causes chemical weathering
water
what is the most important cause of dissolving rock in chemical weathering
water
what is burned fuels that mix with water & cause rapid chemical weathering. "eats" away rock
acid rain
what are plant roots that produce acids that dissolve rock
living organism
mechanical & chemical weathering happen (slower/faster) in wet places
fasher
what are the most fertile soil in the world
priairies
soil damage -
sil can be ______ (loss its fertility) due to 1 crop growth
exhausted
how can soil be damaged?
*lost to erosion by water & wind
*soil is washed away when not protected by plant cover
*plant roots hold soil together
the texture of soil depends on what?
how it appears and feels
the individual soil particles
what is the A horizon
made up of top soil, a crumbly, dark brown soil that is a mixture of humus, clay and other materials
what is the B horizon
often called subsoil, usually consists of clay, and other particles washed down from the a horizon, BUT LITTLE HUMUS
what is the C horizon
contains only partly weathered rock
some organisms make _______ for air and water
spaces
some organisms make _____
humus
soil is classified by
climate, region and coposition
major types of soil in N.A.
tundra, norther forest, prairie, mountain, souther forest, desert, tropical
the thick mass of tough roots at the surface of the soil is called
sod
t or f
prairie soils are no longer amount the most fertile soils in the world
F - they ARE the most fertile soils
why is soil one of earth's most valuable resources
because of its limited supply
t or f
soil can be found wherever weathering occurs
t
t or f
soil is a nonrenewable resource
f
soil formation takes a long time
t
fertle soil is plentiful
f
half of earth has soils good for farming
f
how can soil be damanged
by losing its fertility and dry up
how can plants protect soil from water eroision
by plants breaking the force of falling rain and plant roots hold soil together
t or f
the great plains are farther west than the prairies
t
the great plains are drier than the prairies
t
the great plains begin at the appalachian mountains
f
the great plains have never been farmer or used for ranches
f
which 3 states were part of the dust bowl
oklahoma, kanasa, texas
the management of soil to prevent its destruction is referred to as
soil conservation
why did the dust bowl lead to the adoption of modern methods of soil conservation
because farmers realized they weren't taking care of the soil and started to take care of their land
type of plowing that conserves soil AND involves plowing along curves
contour plowing
type of plowing that conserves soil AND disturbs soil as little as possible
conservation plowing
how can livestock damage soil
because the grass protecting the soil may be damaged which exposes wind and water erosion to the soil

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