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Glossary of Vocab Words for Chapter 3 Earth Science

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A series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another.
rock cycle
The size, shape, and pattern of a rock’s grains.
texture
A particle of mineral or other rock that gives a rock its texture.
grain
A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface.
igneous rock
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together.
sedimentary rock
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
metamorphic rock
Igneous rock that forms from lava on Earth’s surface.
extrusive rock
A dark, dense, igneous rock with a fine texture, found in oceanic crust.
basalt
A usually light-colored rock that is found in continental crust.
granite
Igneous rock that forms when magma hardens beneath Earth’s surface.
intrusive rock
An igneous rock texture in which large crystal are scattered on a background of much smaller crystals.
porphyritic texture
A material that is formed from the elements oxygen and silicon.
silica
Small, solid particles of material from rocks or organisms which are moved by water or wind, resulting in erosion and deposition.
sediment
The process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves fragments of rock and soil.
erosion
The process by which sediments settle out of water or wind that is carrying it, and is deposited in a new location
deposition
The process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight.
compaction
The process by which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together into one mass.
cementation
Sedimentary rock that forms when rock fragments are squeezed together under high pressure.
clastic rock
Sedimentary rock that forms where remains of organisms are deposited in thick layers.
organic rock
Sedimentary rock that forms when minerals crystallize from a solution.
chemical rock
A structure of calcite skeletons built up by coral animals in warm, shallow ocean water.
coral reef
A ring-shaped coral island found far from land.
atoll
Term used to describe metamorphic rocks whose grains are arranged in parallel layers or bands.
foliated

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