Glossary of Viral Pathogenesis

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How is pathogenesis related to evolution?
"Younger" viruses tend to be more pathogenic while "older" viruses are better adapted for symbiosis and thus are not as pathogenic.
What is latency?
Host cells have a viral persistance but not a productive infection - i.e. viral replication, and hence, viral pathogenesis is not occurring.
What are the five most common host determinants of viral pathogenesis?
2.Nutritional status
3.Concurrent diseases
5.Immune status
Many viruses are adapted to a specific portal of entry, and this is taken advantage of during vaccine design. Name 2 viruses whose vaccines use a different portal of entry from the wild-type infection.
1.Small Pox - natural portal of entry is through the oropharnxy, vaccine given through scarification
2.Adenovirus - natural portal of entry is through the oropharnxy, vaccine given enterically
Why do influenza and parainfluenza viruses require the presence of a specific protease released by host epithellium and some bacteria before they can enter the host cell?
The host enzyme cleaves an "H" protein which then exposes the fusogenic protein.
Does an epidermal infection usually spread systemically? Why or why not?
These infections usually remain localized due to the absence of lymphatics, vasculature, or nerves.
How do larger aerosolized droplets vs. smaller aerosolized droplets settle in the lungs?
Larger droplets settle in the upper areas of the lungs while smaller droplets settle in the lower areas.
What are three barriers the lungs present to viral infection via aerosolized droplets?
1.Mucus and cilia
2.Secretory IgA
3.Phagocytic cells
How does the cellular site of maturation influence the dissemination of a virus?
Viruses that mature at the basolateral membrane tend to penetrate deeper while those that mature at the apical membrane sre released back into the lumen.
What is viremia?
The presence of viral particles in the bloodstream
How can viremia be diminished?
Uptake of viral particles by cells of the RES and opsonization.
What purpose does high titer viremia serve the virus?
It allows penetration of multiple organ systems and increases the likelihood of transmission.
What are four ways viruses are able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier?
They can...
1.Cross cells in endocytic vesicles
2.Enter inside of monocytic cells
3.Cross the fenestrated epithelium of the choroid plexus
4.Travel retrograde up peripheral neurons
Name 2 things that influence viral tropism towards certain tissues.
1.Presence of specific receptors
2.Mitotic state of the tissue
3.Specific transcription factors
Name three ways viruses can induce cell death.
1.Inhibition of cellular metabolism
2.Induction of apoptotic pathways
3.Cell-mediated immune response

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