Glossary of Viral Pathogenesis
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- How is pathogenesis related to evolution?
- "Younger" viruses tend to be more pathogenic while "older" viruses are better adapted for symbiosis and thus are not as pathogenic.
- What is latency?
- Host cells have a viral persistance but not a productive infection - i.e. viral replication, and hence, viral pathogenesis is not occurring.
- What are the five most common host determinants of viral pathogenesis?
- Many viruses are adapted to a specific portal of entry, and this is taken advantage of during vaccine design. Name 2 viruses whose vaccines use a different portal of entry from the wild-type infection.
- 1.Small Pox - natural portal of entry is through the oropharnxy, vaccine given through scarification
2.Adenovirus - natural portal of entry is through the oropharnxy, vaccine given enterically
- Why do influenza and parainfluenza viruses require the presence of a specific protease released by host epithellium and some bacteria before they can enter the host cell?
- The host enzyme cleaves an "H" protein which then exposes the fusogenic protein.
- Does an epidermal infection usually spread systemically? Why or why not?
- These infections usually remain localized due to the absence of lymphatics, vasculature, or nerves.
- How do larger aerosolized droplets vs. smaller aerosolized droplets settle in the lungs?
- Larger droplets settle in the upper areas of the lungs while smaller droplets settle in the lower areas.
- What are three barriers the lungs present to viral infection via aerosolized droplets?
- 1.Mucus and cilia
- How does the cellular site of maturation influence the dissemination of a virus?
- Viruses that mature at the basolateral membrane tend to penetrate deeper while those that mature at the apical membrane sre released back into the lumen.
- What is viremia?
- The presence of viral particles in the bloodstream
- How can viremia be diminished?
- Uptake of viral particles by cells of the RES and opsonization.
- What purpose does high titer viremia serve the virus?
- It allows penetration of multiple organ systems and increases the likelihood of transmission.
- What are four ways viruses are able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier?
- They can...
1.Cross cells in endocytic vesicles
2.Enter inside of monocytic cells
3.Cross the fenestrated epithelium of the choroid plexus
4.Travel retrograde up peripheral neurons
- Name 2 things that influence viral tropism towards certain tissues.
- 1.Presence of specific receptors
2.Mitotic state of the tissue
3.Specific transcription factors
- Name three ways viruses can induce cell death.
- 1.Inhibition of cellular metabolism
2.Induction of apoptotic pathways
3.Cell-mediated immune response
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