Glossary of Viral Dieases of the Nervous System

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Definition of Poliomyelitis
Inflammation of the spinal cord
Why has polio been eradicated from N. and S. America along with many European countries?
Salk Polio vaccine
S/S of Polio
fever, headache, sore throat, GI complaints
How is Polio transmitted?
Ingestion- via water contaminated with feces
Map out the pathogenesis of Polio
ingestion->multiplication in throat and small intestine->invasion of tonsils and lymph nodes->blood->CNS->affinity for vental horn cells in upper spinal cord->viral replication->death of the cell->death of cell-> paralysis
Polio does not infect:
peripheral nerves of muscles
What kind of disease is Rabies and what does it result in?
Acute; fatal encephalitis
Rabies is a disease communicable from animals to humans or:
How is rabies transmitted?
bite of infected animal, or virus present in scratches can enter small scratches.
Name another way that rabies can be transmitted.
crosses intact mucous membranes of nose, mouth, and eyes
Map out pathogenesis for rabies:
virus introduced->replicates in muscle->virion enters peripheral nervous system->replicates in dorsal ganglia->CNS
What does the incubation period of rabies depend on?
infecting dose and inoculation site
What is the range of incubation time for rabies?
1 week to a year
S/S of Rabies during Prodromal Phase:
flu-like symptoms, nervousness, depression, and partial paralysis near bite site
S/S of Rabies during Excitation phase:
loss of muscle function, impaired speech and vision, extreme anxiety and apprehension, remains awake and alert.
hydrophobia- R/T pharengeal muscle spasm.
S/S of Rabies during Paralytic phase
fading conciousnes->death
Is there a treatment for rabies?
Yes. vaccination of HDCV- human diploid cell vaccination
How is Rabies Dx?
Negri bodies bodies or clusters of viruses in neurons of infected animals
What pathology do Arboviruses cause?
What do all Arboviruses share in common?
they are all arthropod borne- mosquito
What are the main reseviors for Arboviruses?
horses and birds
When do epidemics of Arboviruses occur?
during the summer when mosquito populations are high.
What is an initial indication of of clincal encephalitis?
disturbed brain function
What are the initial S/S and late S/S of encephalitis?
I-fever, headache, stiff neck
L-confusion, paralysis, convulsions, and sleepiness that may lead to a coma.
How is Encephalitis Dx?
lumbar puncture reveals few hundred leukocytes per mm^3 in CSF, but no infectious organisms
What is the biggest clue to etiology of encephalitis?
case history
How do you prevent encephalitis?
eradicating mosquito vector
When was the West Nile Virus identified in the US?
How far has the West Nile Virus spread in the U.S. and what is it considered?
east to west coast, endemic
Are most cases of West Nile Virus mild or harsh?
What can West Nile Virus cause?
paralysis, and fatal encephalitis

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