Glossary of Viral Dieases of the Nervous System
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- Definition of Poliomyelitis
- Inflammation of the spinal cord
- Why has polio been eradicated from N. and S. America along with many European countries?
- Salk Polio vaccine
- S/S of Polio
- fever, headache, sore throat, GI complaints
- How is Polio transmitted?
- Ingestion- via water contaminated with feces
- Map out the pathogenesis of Polio
- ingestion->multiplication in throat and small intestine->invasion of tonsils and lymph nodes->blood->CNS->affinity for vental horn cells in upper spinal cord->viral replication->death of the cell->death of cell-> paralysis
- Polio does not infect:
- peripheral nerves of muscles
- What kind of disease is Rabies and what does it result in?
- Acute; fatal encephalitis
- Rabies is a disease communicable from animals to humans or:
- How is rabies transmitted?
- bite of infected animal, or virus present in scratches can enter small scratches.
- Name another way that rabies can be transmitted.
- crosses intact mucous membranes of nose, mouth, and eyes
- Map out pathogenesis for rabies:
- virus introduced->replicates in muscle->virion enters peripheral nervous system->replicates in dorsal ganglia->CNS
- What does the incubation period of rabies depend on?
- infecting dose and inoculation site
- What is the range of incubation time for rabies?
- 1 week to a year
- S/S of Rabies during Prodromal Phase:
- flu-like symptoms, nervousness, depression, and partial paralysis near bite site
- S/S of Rabies during Excitation phase:
- loss of muscle function, impaired speech and vision, extreme anxiety and apprehension, remains awake and alert.
hydrophobia- R/T pharengeal muscle spasm.
- S/S of Rabies during Paralytic phase
- fading conciousnes->death
- Is there a treatment for rabies?
- Yes. vaccination of HDCV- human diploid cell vaccination
- How is Rabies Dx?
- Negri bodies bodies or clusters of viruses in neurons of infected animals
- What pathology do Arboviruses cause?
- What do all Arboviruses share in common?
- they are all arthropod borne- mosquito
- What are the main reseviors for Arboviruses?
- horses and birds
- When do epidemics of Arboviruses occur?
- during the summer when mosquito populations are high.
- What is an initial indication of of clincal encephalitis?
- disturbed brain function
- What are the initial S/S and late S/S of encephalitis?
- I-fever, headache, stiff neck
L-confusion, paralysis, convulsions, and sleepiness that may lead to a coma.
- How is Encephalitis Dx?
- lumbar puncture reveals few hundred leukocytes per mm^3 in CSF, but no infectious organisms
- What is the biggest clue to etiology of encephalitis?
- case history
- How do you prevent encephalitis?
- eradicating mosquito vector
- When was the West Nile Virus identified in the US?
- How far has the West Nile Virus spread in the U.S. and what is it considered?
- east to west coast, endemic
- Are most cases of West Nile Virus mild or harsh?
- What can West Nile Virus cause?
- paralysis, and fatal encephalitis
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