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Glossary of Vet Pharm

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What is the RINN of a drug?
the recognized international non proprietary name of a drug
What are the requirements for a good drug?
- efficacy
- safety
- decrease side effects
- decrease in drug residues


What is pharmacokinetics?
Pharmacokinetics determines what the body does from the time the drug enters the system to when it is excreted.
What is clinical pharmacokinetics?
this is when you take the individual animal into consideration.

- liver/ kidney disease

What is pharmacodynamics?
what the drug does to the body.
- gross effects on HR, BP
- cellular effects including blocking receptors

What is the most common model of kinetics?
open model
What does it mean when a drug has first order kinetics?
- rate of the drug is proportional to the drug concentration
- the body can up regulate or down regulate the amount of absorption or elimination based on the concentration of the drug.
What does it mean when a drug has zero order kinetics?
- the rate is constant
- no a dependent reaction and elimination is fixed.
- here the drug takes time to be eliminated.
- example: alcohol dehydrogenase


What are the 6 components that determine if a drug moves throughout the body?
- molecular size
- shape
- degree of elimination
- lipid solubility
- protein binding
- physico- chemical properties




What mechanisms are in place to keep a drug from getting into the brain?
- BBB
- tight junctions
- membrane transporters

What membrane transporter is found in the brain?
p- glycoprotein
What are the mechanisms that allow for movement of a drug across membranes?
- passive transport
- carrier mediated transport which include active transport and facilitative transport


What are the effects of ion trapping?
- most drugs are weak acids
- unionised drugs cross membranes.
- if the ph of a solution is similar to the pka of the drug then the drug will move.
- if the ph of a drug is not the same as the pka of the drug then the drug becomes trapped and can not cross the membrane


what does bioavailability mean?
quantifies drug absorption
What does it mean when a drug undergoes first pass metabolism?
- removal of the drug before it passes through the systemic circulation. this is done when the drug enters portal circulation and is filtered by the liver
Why would adrenalin lead to a decrease in drug elimination?
adrenalin causes vasoconstriction
What is the area under the curve equivalent to?
bioavailability
why is plasma protein binding important in pharmacology?
a bound drug does not move
What is the advantage of having bound drug?
it does not get filtered by the kidney so it lasts longer in the system

What would the volume of distribution be if a drug were distributed into the TBW?
0.6 l/kg
What would the volume of distribution be if a drug were to be distributed into the ECF?
0.1-0.3 L/kg
What are the three things that affect elimination?
- physico- chemical properties
- lipid solubility
- polarity

What is biotransformation?
alteration of a substance within the body by enzymes. Mostly done by the liver
What enzyme facilitates biotransformation in the plasma?
pseudocholinesterase
how are drugs metabolized if they undergo phase I metabolism?
- hydrolysis
- reduction
-oxidation

How are drugs metabolized if they undergo phase II metabolism?
conjugation which includes:
- acetylation
- glucaronidation
- conjugation to amino acids


how do drugs get into the kidney for elimination?
- glomerular filtration
- active transport
What does clearance encompass?
- volume of blood cleared of the drug
- encompasses biotransformation and elimination processes
What is steady state?
levels of drug remain stable or constant from dose to dose
- takes 5-7 half lives
What is drug action?
describes drug receptor interaction

What is drug effect?
chain of events from drug action

What is a drug receptor?
macromolecular structure that can be made of anything
What is a agonist?
a drug that binds to a physiological receptor and mimics effect of endogenous ligand
What is a full agonist?
the max response without all the receptors occupied

What is a partial agonist?
a drug that is incapable o achieving max with all the receptors occupied
What is a drugs affinity?
the tendancy of a ligand and receptor to bind

What is a drugs efficacy?
the effective response to a drug.
What is a drugs potency?
where two drugs are compared and the concentration of each to get a response
What is an antagonist?
a drug that has affinity but no intrinsic activity
name 4 non selective agonist of the SNS?
- adrenaline
-dopamine
- isoprenaline
- phenylpropanolamine


List the pharmokinetics of epinephrine?
- both alpha and beta agonists
- increase HR and increase force
- vasoconstriction
- cardiac arrest, anaphylaxis
- taken up by nerve terminals and non neuronal tissue
- degraded by MAO and COMT
- tachycardia, arrhythmias





What are the pharmokinetics of isoprenaline?
- non selective beta agonist
- positive ionitrophic
- positive chronotrophic
- induce arrhythmias and cause necrosis
- not taken up by nerve terminus but metabolised by liver



what are the pharmokinetics of Dopamine?
- neurotrasmitter
- some effect on renal clearance so goof for management
- increase intracellular cAMP
- induce vasodilation
- at high leves causes vasoconstriction



What are the pharmokinetics of phenylpropanalamine?
- alpha properities
- urinary incontinence
- oral
- nasal decongestant
- hyperexcitability in cats
- tyramine like so release of NA from nerve terminal




what are the beta 1 agonists?
- they are primarily affect cardiac effects
- increase in heartrate, increase in force of constraction
Example is dobutamine

What is dobutamine?
- b1 agonist
- used in equine anaes
- maintain BP
- used in heart failure fo riontropic support
- is IV
- rapid metabolism
- used for short term crisis





What are b2 agonists?
- primary for bronchodilation
- tocolytic- causes uterine relaxation and delay partition
- used as growth promoters

what are some examples of B2 agonists?
- clenbuterol
- terbutaline
- isoxorprine

Describe Clenbuterol?
- bronchodilation
- uterine relaxation
- COPD
- Use IV or PO
- vasodilation
- tachycardia
- growth promoter
- repartitioning effect






Describe Terbutaline?
- bronchiodilator
- cardiac side effects
- used for treatment of conduction disterbances
- oral


Describe Isoxorprine.
- treatment of navicular disease
- vasodilation
- tocolytic drug
- useful


what are alpha 1 agonists?
- vasocontriction
- increase force of myocardrol contraction
- example is pherylephrine

What is pherylephrine?
- stimulate sympathetic
- mydriasis
- used in ocular preps

What are alpha2 agonists?
- central sedative effect
- include xylazine, medetomidine, detomidine


What is clonidine?
- diagnosis of growth humone deficency
What are the 4 antivirals?
- Acyclavir
- Zidovudine
- omega interferons
- amantadine


What is Acyclavir?
- acyclic quanine nucleoside
- inhibits viral DNA polymerase
- effective against herpes
- oral and IV
- eliminated in urine
- relatively safe




What is Zidovudine?
- inhibit RNA dependent DNA polymerase
- HIV
- oral or IV
- gets CSF
- well tolerated
- anemia
- drugs that inhibit glucaronyl transferase
- used in FIV, FELV






What is Omega interferons?
- interfer with trnaslational protein production and disrupt mRNA
- IV SQ
- decrease VD and increase clearance
- good margin of safely
- hyperthermia, lessions, vomiting
- canine parvovirus
- FELV, FIV





What is amantadine?
- water soluable, cyclic amides
- narrow spectrum
- myxoviruse, paramyxoviruses, togerviruses, and influences A
- disrupts virus assembly
- good oral avalibility
- manage influenza




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