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Glossary of VTMC 337 Midterm

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EVOLUTION OF BACTERIA...
Selection driven by use of antibiotics

Exchange of Plasmids
`` increased stocking density
`` transport between populations over long distances
EVOLUTION OF HOSTS
Selection for Performance
`` changes in immunity
`` changes in susceptability
KOCH'S POSTULATES

SHAKY BECAUSE
Some species hard to isolate or culture

Some animals silent carriers
INFECTIOUS DISEASES..
Complex interatiions between
`` host
`` pathogen
`` environment
PATHOGENICITY...
Rare in Bacteria

< 3% are primary pathogens

Most successful bacteria are NOT pathogens
PATTERNS OF SOME BACTERIA AND FUNGAL INFECTIONS...
Are changeing over time

Hard to explain

Related to Host Changes
`` immunity
`` genetics

Related to Microbe Changes
`` anitbiotic use - tf selection
`` loss of virulence

Related to Environment Changes
`` husbandry practices
PATHOGEN

WHAT IS IT

TYPES
An organism which can cause Disease

Obligate

Primary

Opportunist

Nonpahogen
OBLIGATE PATHOGEN
Infectious: 3 - 10

Host predisposition: -

Virulence: ++++

Disease: Distinct

Habitat Diseased or carrier
PRIMARY PATHOGEN
Infectious: 100 - 10 to 5

Host predisposition: +

Virulence: +++

Disease: Distinct

Habitat: carrier
OPPORTUNIST PATHOGEN
Infectious: > 10 to 5

Host predisposition: ++

Virulence: +

Disease: Nonspecific

Habitat: Normal Flora
NONPATHGEN PATHOGEN
Infectious: > 10 to 6

Host predisposition: ++++

Virulence: + / -

Disease: Nonspecific

Habitat: Normal Flora
CONTAGIOUS
Spread of pathogen from HOST to HOST
`` directly
`` indirectly
INFECTION
Presenxe of a potentially pathogenic organism

Infection does not necessarily imply disease
ALL INFECTIOUS DISEASES ARE CONTAGIOUS

T/F
False
VIRULENCE
Degree of pathogenicity
`` ie severity of disease

Low numbers cause disease

High rate of reproduction

Strain + Host + Susceptability Factors
`` minor changes in host defenses create major change in apparent virulence
~~ ie some enteric pathogens
PROBIOTIC
Good bacteria that out competes bad bacteria
PATHOGENESIS
Mechanisms by which bacteria / fungi cause disease
`` includes HOST response to infection

Knowing molecular basis
`` diagnostic measures
`` control measures
INFECTIVITY
Colonizing Ability
VIRULENCE FACTORS
Determinants of bacteria / fungi which cause disease

Bacterial Virulence
`` polygenic ie multifactorial
ATTENUATION
Process of diminishing virulence of organism

Common in developing vaccinations

Note - Attenuation = LIVE
PREDISPOSITION
Predisposing Factors
`` make individuals / groups particularly susceptable to infectious diseas

Shipping Fever - Mannhemia haemolytica
`` develops only when all environmental factors are fullfilled
PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

10 KEY SECRET AGENT SKILLS
Enter body of Host

Attain unique Niche

Avoid, Subvert or Circumvent Host Defences

Evade Acquired Specific Immune Responses

Multiply or Persist

Cause Tissue Damage or Disease

Exit Host

Transmit Infection to New Host
TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME
Response of host defenses to Superantigen

Superantigen produced by bacteria
`` binds T Cell receptors at variable region (nonspecific) to antigen presenting cells
`` tf high number of T cells activated
`` `` ie 10to5 - 10to6 vs 1 in 10to5
`` tf release of Cytokine Storm

Differences in variable region in individuals
`` individual response to superantigen
REPRODUCTIVE RATES
E. coli in vitro
`` 20 - 30 min

Clostridium perfinges
`` 6 min
`` gas producer

Pathogens tend to have higher growth rates

However Mycobacterium paratuberculosis
`` 18 hrs
`` tf chronic disease
BACTERIAL VIRULENCE

9 CONCEPTS
Associate with Host

Multiply to Significant Numbers
`` via Attachement
`` via Invasion

Evade Host Defenses

Cause Damage
`` via Toxin Production
`` `` Exotoxin
`` `` Endotoxin
`` via Host Response
`` `` to presence of bacteria
`` `` immune mediated damage
EPITHELIAL CELL INVASION

GENERAL ASPECTS

IN 3 STAGES
STAGE 1
Access to Mucosa
`` competion with commensals
`` resistance to host defenses
Adherence

STAGE 2
Cell Damage
Colonization
`` cell penetration
`` intracellular proliferation
`` lateral spread
`` `` cell damage

STAGE 3
Entry into blood stream and lymph
`` resistance to host defenses
`` proliferation
Systemic Spread
BACTERIAL DAMAGE TO HOST
Exotoxins
`` local
`` specific effects via specific receptors
`` Inflammatory response to structural components
`` `` cytokines

Endotoxins
`` systemic G-ve
`` Type I Anaphalaxis
`` cytokines




Immune mediated damage
NEUROTOXINS

TETANUS
Cell Wall Peptidoglycan

Type II Cytotoxic
HEMOLYSINS
Lipoteichoic Acid
`` inflamation

Type III - Immune Complex
LEUCOCIDINS
Type III - Immune Complex
ENTEROTOXINS
Type IV - Delayed Hypersensitivity
SPECIFICITY
Driven by receptor presence
`` Species
`` Organ

Some bacteria are
`` specific
`` `` Strep equi, suis, canis
`` `` Strep equi - throat
`` `` Microsporum canis - skin
`` `` E. coli - intestine
`` some are not

Each host has 20 - 30 pathogens which cause host limited disease

The rest of pathogens are broad host range
NON SPECIFIC HOST DEFENSES

2 LINES IN THE CORPORAL SAND
First Line Defenses
`` Surfaces

Second Line Defenses
`` Within Host Tissue
FIRST LINE DEFENSES

14 IN 3 CLASSES
PHYSICAL BARRIERS
`` Skin
`` Mucus
`` Mucosal Epi shedding
`` Peristalsis
`` Urination
`` Defecation
`` Sneezing
`` Mucocilary Elevator

CHEMICAL FACTORS
`` Stomach pH
`` Unsaturated Fatty Acids - Skin
`` Lysozyme
`` `` Tears
`` `` Saliva
`` `` Nose

MICROBIAL ANTAGONISM
`` cheer on the home team
SECOND LINE DEFENSES

10 IN 3 CLASSES
ANTIBACERIAL PEPTIDES
`` complement lytic complexes
`` complement IgG opsonization
`` transferrin
`` `` sequesters iron

TISSUE PHAGOCYTES

INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE
`` vasodilation tf leakage
`` `` fibrin
`` `` immunoglobin
`` `` complement
`` `` phagocytes
`` systemic mobilization of phagocytes
SPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE

2 TYPES TARGETING WHO
TYPE 1 CELLULAR
`` Intracellular Bacteria
`` viruses
`` Intracellular protozoa

TYPE II HUMORAL - Antibodies
`` Extracellular Bacteria
`` Helminths
GENERAL HOST STATES

THE G8
Genetic Makeup of Host
`` some hosts have increased resistance
`` `` ie increase number / diversity of AntiBodies

Nutritional State
`` low Se = high mastitis
`` a few pathogens target well fed fast growing animals
`` `` Clostridium perfinges

Sex
`` Brucella abortus
`` `` dormant in lymph nodes
`` `` gestation - erythrolytic

Pollution
`` ie ammonia gas in barns / stalls
`` `` respiratory problems

Mycotoxins
`` some fungi produce immune suppressors

Foreign Bodies
`` chronic source of infection
`` relapses
`` bacteria protected from lymphocytes in microcrevices
`` water filled capsules
`` `` phagocytes hydrophobic
`` biofilm breaks off forming secondary foci of infection

Age
`` neonates immature immune systems
`` `` foals low interferon for 6 months
`` `` `` tf low cell mediated
`` aged
`` `` reduced immune systems
`` `` increased number of recptors

Stress
`` vastly over rated and undefined
`` ok...
`` sudden changes in feed composition
HOST DEFENSES

EVASION
Resist NonSpecific Host Defenses
`` Phagocytosis
`` `` capsules 90% H20
`` `` phagocytes hydrophobic
`` `` tf require AB to bind - typically 7 days
`` `` other surface components interfere with binding
`` Complement
`` `` long LPS chains prevent complement cascade from reaching
`` `` LPS detaches after 5 - 6 components
`` `` `` tf before complement cascade complete

Resist Specific Host Defenses
`` Antibody Resistance
`` `` secrete proteases which destroy AB
`` `` Antigenic variation in daughter cells
`` `` `` tf 7 more days to build new antibody
`` `` `` tf chronic disease
CPNTAGIOUS DISEASE

CONTROL

MOTHERHOOD STATEMENT
Contagious disease often follows Multifactorial and Complex events
`` tf no simple formula

Control must be based on Understanding of
`` Unique Host-Parasite Interactions
DISEASE

TRIAD ONE MORE TIME

WITH KEY FACTORS
Pathogen
`` Virulence
`` Numbers

Host
`` General State
`` Immunity
`` Nutritional Stress

Environment
`` Temperature
`` Humidity
`` Stocking Rate
`` Mixing
`` Associated Pathogens
AUTOGENOUS VACCINES
Culture Specific Pathogen strain(s)
from affected farm
`` will contain specific virulence factors

Kill with fomalin
`` vaccintate animals

Effective for a few years before requiring updates

Usually do not do PCR to identify specific virulence factor
`` that job is left up to the immune system
`` `` ie immune system will have strongest response to most antigenic factors
SOURCES OF INFECTION

3
Endogenous Orgranisms
`` opportunistically pathogenic members of the normal flora

Diseased Animals
`` incubating
`` sick
`` recovered carriers
`` primary or obligate pathogens

Exogenous Sources
`` free living organisms
`` ie Bacillus anthracis
CARRIERS

DEFINITION
Individuals that discharge virulent organisms
`` via excretions
`` apparently normal
`` hard to detect
CARRIERS

4 TYPES

4 EXAMPLES
Active
`` sick animal
`` Johne's Disease - Colibacillosis

Passive
`` recovered or colonized animal
`` Salmonella
`` `` stressed pigs

Transient
`` organism not established
`` temporarily colonized
`` Shigella spp
`` `` dog drinks from toilet bowl

Latent
`` present in body
`` shed only when immunocompromised
`` Mycobacterium bovis
ROUTES OF INFECTION
Direct
`` Animal to Animal
`` Horizontal
`` `` ingestion
`` `` inhalation
`` `` genital
`` `` skin
`` Vertical
`` `` dam to offspring
`` `` `` via egg, fetus, vagina
`` `` sire to offspring
`` `` `` via semen

Indirect
`` air
`` water
`` bedding
`` Vectors
`` `` insects
`` fomites
`` `` Weams boots in the poultry centre
INFECTIOUS DISEASE CONTROL

5 KEY ELEMENTS
Detection and Eradication of Carriers

Isolation and Treatment of Sick Animals

Environmental Eradication or Control

Decrease Frequency of Contacts

Increase Resistence
`` Non Specific
`` `` Increase
INCREASE RESISTANCE

4 WAYS
Non Specific
`` Increase non specific resistance
`` `` immune modulators
`` `` micro nutrients
`` `` `` Vit A, Se etc
`` Control INtercurrent Disease
`` `` eliminate primary virus or bacteria
`` `` tf avoid secondary infection
`` `` ie clostridum perfungens = diarrhea
`` `` `` + parvo virus = death

Specific
`` Vaccination
`` Genetic selection for resistance
STAPHYLOCOCCI

DEFINITION
Spherical or Ovoid

G+

Grapelike Clusters
`` broth or fluid

1 micrometer dia

Culture - Blood Agar
`` white to golden colonies
`` 1 - 2 mm dia @ 18hrs & 37deg
`` smooth cirular and opaque
`` Hemolysis
`` ``some not at 24 hrs or at all
`` `` incomplete
`` `` `` 2 or 3 zones of hemolysis
`` Faculative Anaerobe
STAPHYLOCOCCI

VETERINARY SPECIES 4
Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus intermedius

Staphylococcus hyicus

Staphylococcus epidermidis
STAPHYLOCOCCI

HABITAT
Ubiquitous
`` commensals
`` saprophytes
`` `` (live on inanimate mediums such as my brain)
`` skin
`` mucosal surfaces

Cat and Dog spp similar to human
`` tf cross infection
STAPHYLOCOCCI

PATHOGENICITY
Pyogenic
`` pus forming

Require predisposing factors to produce disease
`` must overcome host defenses
`` trauma to skin or mucosa
`` can then travel in blood and seed other sites
STAPHYLOCOCCI

COAGULASE
Useful criterion of potential pathogenicity

Positive tend to be pathogenic
`` Dogs - Coagulase+ 95% Stap intermedius
`` Bovine - Coagulase+ 90% Staph aureus
`` Equine - Coagulase+ 90% Staph aureus
`` Feline - Coagulase+ 90% Staph intermedius

Note many Staph spp are Coagulase-
STAPHYLOCOCCI

RESISTANCE
Long survival in environment
`` resiste desication for weeks
`` 4 months in dry pus
`` `` tf transmission via flys to damaged skin
`` survive 12% NaCl & 1% phenol for 15 mins
STAPHYLOCOCCI

MAJOR PATHGENIC FACTORS 3
Cellular

Toxins

Enzymes
STAPHYLOCOCCI

CELLULAR PATHOGENIC FACTORS

6
Peptidoglycan
`` inhibist leukocyte migration
`` dermonecrotic
`` activates complement

Teichoic Acids
`` adherence to mucosal surfaces
`` activates complement

Fibronectin Binding Sites
`` enhances adherence to tissues
`` `` exposed dermis

`` Protein A
`` antiphagocytic
`` `` binds to Fx frogment of opsonization site of antibody
`` `` `` tf cant bind phagocyte
`` fixes complement

Capsule
`` antiphagocytic

Staphyloferrin B
`` siderophore
`` `` ie steals Fe from transferrin
STAPHYLOCOCCI

TOXIN PATHOGENIC FACTORS

6
Alpha Toxin (phage mediated)
`` complete hemolysis of sheep and rabit rbcs
`` cytotoxic
`` leucocytotic
`` lyser of platelets
`` disrupter of lysosomes
`` muscle spasms
``histamine release
`` dermonecrosis
`` death

Beta Toxin
`` Incomplete hemolysis
`` leukocyte damage
`` necrosis

Leucocidin
`` leukocyte degranulation
`` `` via membrane permability

Enterotoxins
`` A - Q ie 17 of em
`` nausea
`` vomiting
`` diarrhea
`` SUPERANTIGEN

Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin
`` enterotoxin F
`` ptoent pyrogenic material
`` SUPERANTIGEN
`` over represented in mastitis strains

Exfoliatin
`` aka Stphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSS)
`` damages stratum spinosum junctions
`` `` intrepidermal seperation
`` `` cleft between stratum corneum and underlying epidermis
STAPHYLOCOCCI

ENZYME PATHOGENIC FACTORS

8
Coagulase
`` coagulates plasma

Hyaluronidase
`` diffusing factor - mucinase

Nuclease
`` DNase - destroys DNA

Penicillinase
`` destroys penicillin

Protease
`` destroys proteins

Lipase
`` destroys lipids
`` tf skin damage

Urease
`` splits urea

Spaphylokinase
`` activator of fibrinolysis
STAPHYLOCOCCI

PATHOGENIC FACTORS

PERSPECTIVE
Not all factors produced by all strains

Quantitative variation in production amounst strains

virulence cannot be explained in terms of a single factor

Differetn virulaenc mechanisms come int play according to rout of invasion

Express enzymes required for a particular environment
STAPHYLOCOCCI

HOST DEFENSES
Phagocytosis
`` main
`` tf if phagocyte deficits highly susceptible

Antibody
`` important

Cell Mediated
`` ??
STAPHYLOCOCCI

CATTLE
Mastitis most economically important

Most common single cause

Acute Inflammatory change
`` peracute with rapid onset
`` usually near parturition
`` large toxin production
`` `` alpha toxin
`` `` fibrinolysin
`` `` coagulase
`` `` lukocidin
`` massive necrosis of tissue
`` `` tf taxaemia
`` early severe febrile response
`` `` abated if gangrenous

Sublclincal Inflamatory Change
`` most common

Chronic Inflammatory Change
`` increase in milk cell counts
`` `` via neutrophil migration
`` Botryomycosis
`` `` chronic pyogranulomatous lesions
`` `` ABs cannot penetrate
STAPHYLOCOCCI

SHEEP AND GOATS
Mastitis ala Cattle

Ulcerative Dermatitis
STAPHYLOCOCCI

SWINE
Dermatitis aka Staphlylococcal acne
`` Pigs uner 8 weeks
`` small circumscribed pustules over much of boddy
`` also bites on mammaries

Mastitis
`` acute
`` chronic
`` `` more common
`` `` often botryomycotic
STAPHYLOCOCCI

POULTRY
S. aureus

Subcutaneous absecesses of foot
`` Bumblefoot
`` synovitis
`` arthritis
`` osteomyelitis
`` `` rare
STAPHYLOCOCCI

HORSES
Botryomycosis
`` most common manifestation
`` lesions in spermatic cord
`` castration or penetrating wounds

Dermatitis
`` also common
`` skin wounds
`` photosensitivity
STAPHYLOCOCCI

DOGS
Otits Externa
`` infection of external ear
`` Inflammation of Subcutaneous Glands and Tissues

Infection of Skin Glands
`` local cellulitis
`` hyperplasia of skin
`` `` furunculosis

Canine Pyoderma
`` juvinile pyoderm
`` folliculitis
`` cell and AB mediated allery involved in pathogenesis

Cystitis
`` sproadically associated with
`` `` Staph aureus
`` Staph intermedius
`` susceptiblity
`` `` skin folds
`` `` german shepards

SSS
`` generalized exfoliative dermatitis

Infection of
STAPHYLOCOCCI

CATS
Secondary Skin Infections

SSS
`` generalized exfoliative Dermatitis
STAPHYLOCOCCI

RABBITS
Exudative Dermatitis

Pyemia
`` septicimia in which secondary foci of suppuration occur and multiple abscesses are formed
STAPHYLOCOCCI

EPIDEMIOLOGY
Widespread in Animal Environment

Transmission from cow to cow via teat cup liners
`` Development of clinical disease frequently depends on exposure of tissues to stress factors
`` `` recent parturition
`` `` improperly functioning milk machines

Humans are Carriers
`` Nose
`` hands
`` clothes

Endogenous Disease
`` pyoderma
`` otis externa
`` urinary tract infections
STAPHYLOCOCCI

IMMUNITY
Toxoid or whole cell vaccines
`` some protective immunity
`` killed s. aureus
`` `` IgG1 but poor opsonization receptors
`` live s. aureus
`` `` IgG2 matches virulence factors
`` beware of claims fo bacterins for dairy herds

Animals recoverd froms tphylocoaccal infections
`` DO NOT acquire long lasting resistance
`` Humoral requires high quantiy of appropriate class and subclass AB
`` cell mediated is quesitonable

Endogenous Vaccines may tilt to cell mediated
`` tf produce long lasting immunity
BACTERIN
Vaccine consisting of killed bacteria
STAPHYLOCOCCI

THERAPY
Conduct Sensitivity Test First
`` except for ultra acute disease

Chronic Disease
`` expect failure
`` `` fibrous encapsulated deep seated lesions
`` `` prolonged treatment 7 - 11 days

Many strains are Penicillin Resistant

Resistance to ohter ABs
`` aminoglycosides
`` tetracyclines
`` macrolides
`` lincosamides
`` streptogranins
`` not as disseminated as human strains
`` increases in resistance reported
STAPHYLOCOCCI

HUMAN INFECTION
Dog Bites
`` high incidence of MRSA (methicillin resistant staph aureus)

Deep Skin Lesions
`` via cattle and sheep

In general intra species spread is limited
`` host specificity
STAPHYLOCOCCI

FOOD POISONING
Stphylococcal Enterotoxin
`` secondary contamination of food with human staph
`` occasionally animal staph sp
STAPHYLOCOCCI

STPHYLOCOCCUS HYICUS
Exudative Epidermitis aka greasy pig disease
`` Affects very young pigs
``Hair Follicles and Sweat Glands
`` `` excessive sebaceous secretion
`` `` exfoliation
`` `` inflammatory exudate
`` `` parakeratosis and edema
``Oedematus Cnanges
`` `` kidney pelvis
`` `` ureters
`` `` NOT bladder

Eye Infections in Avians
`` associated with coliforms

Source is usually carrier
STAPHYLOCOCCI

STPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS
Coagulase Negative !!!

Low grade subclinical Mastitis in Cattle
`` frequently found in high cell count milk
`` may enable infected quarter to withstand infection by other pathogens
`` `` E. coli
`` `` Strep agalactiae

Other staphylococci species are sometimes cause of mastitis
`` ie staph xylosus
STAPHYLOCOCCI

DIAGNOSIS
Direct Smears helpful

Culture

Biochemical Tests

And of course the ubiquitous potential significance of
`` isolation of other Staphylococcus spescies in high numbers and / or pure culture
STREPTOCOCCUS
sperical or ovoid

Gram +

Chains or pairs
` long chains in broth

Aerobic / Facultatively anaerobic

Pathogenic species fement carbs

Catalase Neg
STREPTOCOCCUS

CULTURE
Beta Hemolytic strep
`` are more fastidious in growth requirement
`` generally more virulent
`` blood, serum or animal protein in media

small delicate colonies
`` 1 mm dia
`` smooth
`` glistening
`` some produce a mucoid capsule
STREPTOCOCCUS

HABITAT
Commensuals or Parasites
`` mucous memb
`` `` URT
`` `` Lower Genital tract
`` `` skin
`` `` alimentary tract (enterococci)
HAEMOLYSIS

3
Alpha
`` greenish discoloration

Beta
`` wide zone of complete lysis of rbcs
`` medium becomes transparent

Gamma
`` no haemolysis
STREPTOCOCCUS

ANTIGEN STRUCTURE
Capsule polysaccharide

Cell Wall Protein Antigens
`` M
`` `` can be shed
`` T
`` R

Group Carbohydrate
`` aka Lancefield groups
`` A to V

Peptidoglycan
`` inflammation
STREPTOCOCCUS

CELLULAR VIRULENCE FACTORS
Hyaluronic Acid Capsule
`` host recognizes as self
`` antiphagocytic
`` `` T. pyogenes, S. equi
`` once #s are high turns off expression to save energy
`` `` dry small colonies

M Protein
`` > antigenic types
`` `` tf specific locations ie S. equi Equine Respiratory
`` adherence
`` antiphocytic

Peptidoglycan
`` inflammation
`` fever
`` lymphocte proliferation
`` dermonectrotic
STREPTOCOCCUS

EXTRACELLULAR VIRULENCE FACTORS
Streptolysin O
`` lethal for mice, rabbits, guinea pigs
`` oxygen labile
`` Leukotoxic
`` `` PMNs and macrophages
`` `` tf increased host susceptability

Streptolysin S
`` wide zone of haemolysis on aerobic plates
`` oxygen stable
`` Leukotoxic

Steptokinase
`` lysis of fibrin

Dexoyribonuclease
`` may liquify viscous inflammatory exudeate
`` `` tf aids dissemination

Hyaluronidase
`` dissemination factor
`` favars invasion of tissues
STREPTOCOCCUS

SEROLOGICAL GROUPS
Group A and B

Lancefield via percipitin test
`` based on dominant carb

C susbstance antigens
STREPTOCOCCUS

S. pyogenes Group A
Mainly Human Pathogen
`` septic sore throat
`` scarlet fever

Necrotizing Fascilitis

Toxic Shock like syndrome
STREPTOCOCCUS

BOVINE MASTITIS

S. agalctiae
Strep. agalactiae (Group B)
`` typical long coccal chain
`` Beta haemolytic
`` `` narrow zone
`` `` some strains non haemolytic
``CAMP phenomenon positive
`` `` arrowhead appearance
`` `` zone of incomplete straph. aureus haemolysis
`` `` completely lysed by steptococcal haemolysin

Pathogenicity
`` chronic bovine mastitis
`` first attack inflammation
`` some fibrosis
`` subsequent attacks replace secretatory tissue with fibrous CT
`` rarely subacute
`` increased cell milk count

Laboratory Diagnosis
`` CAMP positive

Transmission
`` survives poorly outside of udder
`` tranmsission directtly to teat
`` `` hands
`` `` teat cup liners
`` occasionally indiredt

Immunity
`` increasing frequency with age
`` chronic mild mastitis
`` `` fibrotic change
`` `` watery milk
`` `` tf no age immunity

Therapy
`` penicillin and many other antibiotics
`` `` low development of resistance
`` failure of treatment clinical cases
`` lack of AM penetration in lesions
`` `` blockage of duct
`` `` `` shrinkage of peri ductal fibrous tissue
`` `` `` proliferation of ductal epithelium
`` `` `` or both

Human Infection
`` rarely infects humans
`` neonatal
`` `` septicemia
`` `` meningitis
`` most human strains DISSIMILAR to bovine strains
STREPTOCOCCUS

BOVINE MASTITIS

Strep. dysgalactiae
Step. dysgalactiae (Group C, G, L)

Non haemolytic or narrow alpha zone

Location
`` udder
`` and other sites, vagina, tonsil

More acute than Strep. agalactiae but rarely systemic

Often in association with
`` Arcanobacterium pyogenes
`` Peptostreptoccus indolicus
`` faculative anaerobes
`` `` tf bad smell
`` "Summer Mastitis"
`` `` also winter

Transmission
`` flies transmit via exudate

Treatment
`` penicillin per Strep. agalactiae

flies
STREPTOCOCCUS

BOVINE MASTITIS

Strep. uberis
Steptococcus uberis

alpha or gamma haemolytic
`` CAMP-Esculin media
`` `` Esculin Split
`` `` 10% strains CAMP positive

Location
`` skin of udder
`` feces
`` tonsil
`` rumen
`` soil
`` `` can reproduce in hay and soil
`` `` tf high enviro #s

sporadic cases of mastitis
`` "environmental mastitis"

Transmission
`` occasionally moderately widespread in herd
`` stress factors
`` `` post parturient

Pathogenicity
`` acute mastits
`` `` soon overcome
`` `` udder appears to revert to normal

Treatment
`` penicillin per Strep. agalactiae
STREPTOCOCCUS

Strep. bovis
Streptococcus bovis (Group D)
`` present in mouth and GI Cattle
`` exessive quantities in rumen
`` `` lactic acidosis
`` maybe invoved in feed bloat
`` `` polysaccaride capsule increases
`` `` `` viscosity
`` `` `` foaming properties
STREPTOCOCCUS

Strep. equi equi
Steptococcus equi equi (Group C)
Colonies
`` Wide zone beta haemolysis
`` larger
`` honey coloured
`` viscous (when capsulated)

Pathogenicity
`` Specifically an Equine pathogen
`` abscesses in lymph nodes (STRANGLES)
`` `` especially head
`` `` lungs and nasal cavity may be involved
`` highly contagious
`` high (up to 100%) morbidity
`` low mortality
`` Sequelae
`` `` pupura hemorrhagica
`` `` `` type II sensitivity
`` `` `` appears 2 - 3 weeks after apparent recovery

Immunity
`` usually good but temporary after natural disease

Therapy
`` normally sensitive to penicillin
`` AM cannot penetrate abscesses
`` `` tf draining of abscesses may be neccessary
STREPTOCOCCUS

Strep. equi zooepidemicus
Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus (Group C)

Colonies
`` Wide zone beta haemolysis
`` tiny < 1 mm

Variety of nonspecific infections in horses
`` ie #1 infection
`` `` trachea
`` `` wounds
`` `` eyes
`` #2 infection
`` `` pleura
`` `` post op
`` `` umbilicus
`` `` uterus
`` joint infections
`` `` very difficult to treat in bone

Also cattle, guinea pigs, rabbits

Important in Western Can Pigs

Occasional cases of human infection reported
STREPTOCOCCUS

Strep. porcinus
Streptococcus procinus (Groups E, P, U, V)

Pathogenicity
`` Cervical lymphadenitis
`` `` aka jowl abscess
`` `` aka swine strangles
`` pneumania
`` septicaemia

Midwest USofA mainly
`` rare in Canada
STREPTOCOCCUS

Strep. suis
Streptoccus suis

35 casule serotypes recognized
`` many possess Group D antigen
`` but homogeneous spp.
`` `` tf not part of general Group D

Colonie
`` alpha haemolytic

Virulence Factors
`` Capsule
`` `` antiphagocytic
`` `` adherence
`` intracellular survival in non activated macrophages
`` pili via aderence?

Resistance
`` survives in feces up
`` `` 100 days at 0 deg C
`` `` 21 days at 9 deg C
`` rapidly inactivated by disinfectants and cleansers

Affected Species
`` mainly pigs
`` `` esp 5 - 24 weeks
`` rarely isolated from clinical specimens
`` `` cats
`` `` horses
`` `` calves
`` `` sheep
`` `` goat
`` some serotypes are important
`` `` high mortality
`` `` high morbidity
`` `` zoonautics
`` `` `` ie deafness in humans

Pathogenesis Pigs
`` intrapartum or Aerosol (flies)
`` nasal cavities / tonsils
`` ``` main source of dissemination
`` mandibular lymph nodes
`` `` stress via
`` `` `` circovirus
`` `` `` PRRS
`` Septiciemia
`` various organs
`` often involves other bacteria

Clinical Signs
`` variable
`` sudden death without signs
`` high temp - 42.5 deg C
`` anorexia
`` deprssion
`` ataxia
`` paralysis
`` paddling
`` opisthotonos
`` tremors
`` convulsions
`` blindness
`` abortion

Lesions - some of
`` suppurative meningitis
`` pneumonia
`` arthritis (type 9)
`` vegetative endocarditis
`` necrotizing carditis
`` polyserositis
`` skin redding
`` enlarged lymph nodes
`` congestion of parenchymatous organs

Diagnosis
`` culture biochemical tests
`` `` necropsy organs
`` `` nasal, genital secretions
`` heavy frowth of alpha haemolytic Strep from internal organs
`` `` Major Alert

Control
`` minimize stress (ha ha)
`` strategically medicate feed
`` `` prior to known periods of heightened risk
`` `` may just delay clinical cases
`` depopluate and restock

Treatment
`` vaccination results uncertain
`` `` autogenous
`` `` `` pool joints, hearts, brains of several animals
`` `` `` take samples away from lesions
`` penicillin
`` debridment of large amount of tissue

Zoonosis
`` mainly pig workers
`` `` 80% of cases
`` low mortality
`` deafness 57% of cases
`` risk of meningitis
STREPTOCOCCUS

DOGS AND CATS
Streptococcus canis (Group G)
`` opportunistic pathogen
`` new born puppies
`` `` septicemia
`` adult dogs and cats
`` `` non specific diseases
`` Necrotizing faciitis and toxic shock like syndrome
`` `` local infection and sudden death
`` `` `` usually constant pain
`` `` `` treat via debridement of large amount of tissue
`` `` `` Prior treatment with quinalone
`` `` `` `` enable phage tf superantigen
`` usually just abscesses

Zoonosis
`` dog and cat strains appear different from human
STREPTOCOCCUS

Enteroccocus spp.
Canine Urinary tract

GI tract of man and animals

Increasing importance in nosocomial infections

Septicemia in Chickens

Antimicrobial Resistance
`` major problem in humans
`` esp Enterococcus vancomycin resistance (VRE)

Enterococcus durans
`` recently described in diarrheic illness
`` foals
`` calves

Streptococcus pneumonia
`` 80 types
`` 50% mortality in humans
`` primarily human pathogen
`` meningitis in calves
`` mastitis cows
`` occasional pneumonia
`` `` calves
`` `` dogs
`` `` horses
`` Monkeys - tf zoonosis
`` `` pneumococcal pneumonia
`` `` speticemia
`` `` meningitis
`` `` acute course high mortality
`` Horses
`` `` LRT inflammation
`` `` URT commensual in some
CORYNEBACTERIA
Gram Positive

Chinese letter Palisade form

Pleomorphism
`` occasionally marked
`` `` ressemble cocci

Non sporing

Animal Pathogins
`` non motile
`` pyogenic

Aerobic or microaerophilic

Veaded Staining
`` metachromatic granules with methylene blue
CORYNEBACTERIA

Arcanobacterium pyogenes
Epidemiology
`` survives on
`` `` normal mucous membrane
`` `` skin
`` mainly opportunistic pathogen

Diagnosis
`` gram stain
`` `` G+ rods to cocci
`` `` palisade - Chinese letters
`` culture

Immunity
`` toxoid used with limited results in prevention of infection
`` whole culture antigens (bacterins)
`` `` limited value

Treatment
`` penicillin normally quite effective in vitro
`` `` may be infective in vivo
`` `` `` must penetrate fibrous capsule and pus
`` drainage is extremely important
CORYNEBACTERIA

Arcanobacterium pyogenes

CATTLE
Suppurative processes in almost every tissue or organ
`` esp if organ compromised

Ofen found with other bacteria
`` esp anaerobic
`` `` F. necrophorum
`` `` P. indolicus

Lesions often found
`` lungs
`` `` secondary purulent bronchopneumonia follow virus
`` `` `` Mycoplasma
`` `` `` Pasteurella
`` `` `` Mannheimia
`` `` `` parasitic infection
`` Liver
`` `` abscesses
`` `` F. necrophorum more common in cattle
`` Uterus
`` `` abortion
`` `` purulent metritis
`` Joints
`` `` young calves
`` `` `` post umbilical infection
`` `` adults
`` `` `` post metritis or mastitis
`` Heart
`` `` endocarditis
`` `` myocarditis
`` `` traumautic pericarditis
`` Bone Marrow
`` `` young calves
`` `` `` osteomyelitis post umbliliculitis
`` `` adults
`` `` `` vertebae post foot lesions
`` Sinuses
`` `` frontal purulent post dehorning
`` Vesicular semminitis
`` Mastitis
`` `` rare lactating cow
`` `` Dry Cow or Heifer associated with
`` `` `` Strep. dysgalactiae and/or P. indolicus
`` Abortions
`` `` high #s in abomasal fluid
CORYNEBACTERIA

Arcanobacterium pyogenes

Sheep and Goat
Lung
`` secondary purulent bronchopneumonia following
`` `` Mycoplasma
`` `` Pasteurella
`` `` Mannheimia
`` `` parasitic infection

Joint and Foot infections

Occasionally causes abortion
CORYNEBACTERIA

Arcanobacterium pyogenes

SWINE
Lung
`` secondary purulent bronchopneumonia following
`` `` Mycoplasma
`` `` Pasteurella
`` `` Mannheimia
`` `` parasitic infection

Subcutaneous abscesses
`` associated with skin trauma ie tail biting
`` development of pyaemia and production of secondary lesions
`` `` lungs
`` `` bone marrow

Metritis
`` post partum
`` purulent
CORYNEBACTERIUM

Renale Group
Corynebacterium renale
Corynebacterium cystitidis
Corynebacterium pilosum

Specific invaders of unrinary tract of Cattle
`` cystitis and pyelonephritis
`` rarely found in other animals

Serotypes vary in virulence by species - ie specificity
`` C. pilosum
`` `` cystitis but NOT pyelonephritis
`` C. renale
`` `` chronis cystitis AND pyelonephritis
`` C. cystitidis
`` `` chronis cystitis AND pyelonephritis
`` `` clinically most severe
`` `` most difficult to treat with AM agents

C. pilosum and C. renale
`` frequently found as normal flora
`` `` lower urogenital tract healthy cows (rarely isolated)
`` `` prepuce of bulls

C. cystitidis
`` `` normal flora prepuce of bulls


Culture
`` normal media
`` blood agar and/or serum enhances growth
`` G+ rods to cocci palisade

Biochemical
`` all 3 spp catalase +
`` all 3 spp STRONG producers of urease

Resistance
`` probably low outsided of body

Virulence Factors
`` Pili
`` `` adherence
`` Urease
`` `` produces ammonia
`` `` `` inactivates complement
`` `` `` direct tissue damage (pH 9)

Pathogenesis
`` adherence overcomes urinary washout
`` `` enables ASCENDING urinary tract infection
`` `` alkaline inflammation and tissue destruction
`` incidenece of disease much higher in female than male
`` `` higher postpartuent
`` `` `` pressure effect of uterus reduces urine flow

Epidemiology
`` spread via external genitalia
`` `` venereal
`` `` tail to tail contact of purulent material
`` `` `` via tail swishing during urination

Diagnosis
`` urine sediment showing
`` `` typical organisms
`` `` pus cells
`` Culture #s important
`` `` C. renale & C. pilosum
`` `` `` normal flora
`` `` `` `` tf > 100 cfu significant
`` `` C. cystitidis
`` `` `` not normal flora
`` `` `` `` tf < 100 cfu Significant

Treatment
`` sensistive to penicillin
`` chronic cases may need prolonged treatment
`` moderate damage in bladder
`` `` recurrence
`` `` secondary infection
`` `` `` Proteus
`` `` `` E. coli
`` `` `` Streptococci
CORYNEBACTERIUM

pseudotuberculosis
aka Corynebacterium ovis
`` caseous lymphadenitis sheep and goats
`` `` Thin Ewe Syndrome once visceral
`` ulcerative lymphadinitis and deep abscesse of horses
`` rarely lulcerativ and/or pyogranulomatous lesions bovine and alpaca

Culture
`` G+ rod to cocci
`` `` palisade - Chinese Letter formation
`` slightly haemolytic on blood agar
`` colonies dry appearance

Virulence Factors
`` Surface Liped
`` `` pervents or delays phagosome-lysosome fusion
`` `` `` tf intraphagocyte survival (unactivated)
`` `` `` Facultative Intracellular Parasite
`` Exotoxin
`` `` Phospholopase D aka Hemolysin
`` `` `` hemolytic via increase in vascular permeability
`` `` serine protease

Restistance
`` survives up to 2 months in environment
`` `` esp moisture and organic material

Pathogenicity
`` Contagious Caseous Lymphadenitis Sheep
`` Primary lesion
`` `` most frequently in lymph nodes
`` `` `` esp prescapular or prefemoral
`` `` `` also liver, lungs and associated lymph nodes
`` infection enters via
`` `` damaged skin
`` `` `` shearing, docking, castration, dipping
`` `` respiratory Tract
`` `` pyaemia may develop later
`` Early Lesions
`` `` soft greenish yellow pus
`` `` followed by enlargement of lesion or lymphnode
`` `` `` inspissated pus
`` `` `` laid in concentric circles - onion
`` `` oleder lesions are grey
`` animals may remain in good condition despite lesions
`` `` eventually become emaciated
`` `` `` Thin Ewe Syndrome

Diagnosis
`` Typical Caseous Lesion
`` `` almost pathonomic
`` `` note similar lesion via Actinobacillus ligieresii
`` `` `` differentiate via gram stain
`` `` `` `` G- morse code
`` sspirate lymph nodes
`` `` organisms hard to find
`` culture
`` ELISA

Immunity
`` Cell mediated - major role
`` also antitoxin antibodies

Vaccine
`` commercial vaccine
`` `` sheep and goats
`` `` reported good protection
`` `` special adjuvants
`` autogenous vaccines do not work well

Treatment
`` AM effective in vitro
`` less effective in vivo
`` `` penetration of absceses
`` `` introcellular location
`` low resistance
`` hygiene
`` isolation
`` avoid rough food
`` drain abscesses
`` cull positives
`` vaccinate
`` disinfect wounds
CORYNEBACTERIUM

psuedotuburculosis

HORSES
Ulcerative Lymphangitis in legs
`` `` pus from lymphatic vessels on legs
`` `` similar to reportable GLANDERS
`` `` `` Burkholderia mallei
`` `` `` G-

Contagious Acne
`` aka canadian Horse Pox
`` `` uncommon folliculitis

Chest abscesses
`` pigeon chest via specific lymph node
CORYNEBACTERIUM

psuedotuburculosis

CATTLE
Skin infections
`` sporadic

Mastitis
`` sporadic
CORYNEBACTERIUM

psuedotuburculosis

HUMAN
Lymphadenitis
`` post animal contact
`` few cases reported
RHODOCOCCUS equi
Pyogenic organism
`` mainly affects foals
`` sproadic cases in many other spp.
`` `` including human

Culture
`` Weakly G+ short rod to cocci
`` sometimes partly acid fast
`` non haemolytic
`` mucoid colonies
`` `` white at 24 hrs
`` `` redish pink 14 - 72 hrs
`` specific "shower" smell

Resistance
`` highly resistant to dessication

Habitat
`` soil organism
`` feces of herbivores
`` multiplies in well manured soils
`` multipiles in foal intestine
`` `` not completely anaerobic environment
`` `` faculative aerobes
`` `` `` survives but do not reproduce in anaerobic environment
`` world wide distribution

Virulence Factors
`` strain variation
`` Vap surface protein (A and B)
`` intra macrophage survival via
`` `` corynemycolic acids, phospholipids, glycolipids
`` `` induce granuloma formation
`` polysaccharide capsule
`` `` inhibits pulmonary macrophage oxidative burst
`` Exoenzymes aka equi factors
`` `` phospholipase C
`` `` cholesterol oxidase

Pathogenicity
`` Faculative Intracellular Parasite
`` suppurative chronic bronchopneumonia
`` `` mainly young foals (1 - 6 months)
`` purulent infiltration of lymph nodes
`` intestinal ulceration
`` `` abscess fromation mesenteric lymph nodes
`` swine
`` `` submaxillary lymph nodes
`` `` `` produce small abscesses
`` `` sybmaxillar lymph nodes

Epidemiology
`` serious problem on endemic farms
`` `` poor hygiene, old farms
`` Morbidity up to 90%
`` Mortality 5%

Immunity
`` ceell mediated and humoral
`` only ACTIVATED macrophages kill efficiently
`` ingestion and killing via PMN and macrophages
`` `` significantly increased by presence of specific antibodies

Diagnosis
`` Radiograpy
`` Direct Smear
`` Culture
`` ELISA
`` PCR

Treatment
`` Erythromycin - rifampin Combination
`` `` lipophilic prolonged treatment
`` Clarithromycin and rifampin (?)
`` Azithomycin
`` Ceftiofur
`` Tilmicosin
`` `` high [lung]
`` `` `` tf works despite high MIC

Prevention
`` Hygiene
`` `` reduce environmental load is key
`` EHV-2 predisposing factor
`` Endemic Situations
`` `` hyperimmune plasma
`` `` prophylatic AM
`` ensure colostrum intake
`` dust control
`` remove foals from contaminated grounds
LISTERIA monocytogenes
G+ small rod
`` 0.5 to 2 microm by 0.4 to 0.5 microm
`` motile in broth cultures - 15 to 22 deg C
`` grows 4 to 42 deg C
`` non sporing

Culture
`` Aerobic
`` Faculative Intracellular Parasite
`` resembles Strep
`` `` narrow zone of Beta Haemolysis (complete)
`` 1 to 45 deg C
`` pH 5.5 to 9

Biochemical
`` CAMP reaction with Staph aureus
`` Catalase +

Resistance
`` heat 62.5 deg C for 30 min
`` culure media @ 4 deg C for 3 - 4 yrs
`` hay, straw, sand earth, milk
`` `` weeks to months

Antigenic Structure
`` Seven Serovars
`` `` 1/2a, 1/2b, 4b most common in animals and humans

Pathogenicity and Virulence Factors
`` Listeriolysin O aks Hemolysin
`` `` supports survival inside macrophages
`` `` `` lyses phagosome
`` stimulates increase in circulating monocytes
`` `` esp rabbits - 30% increase
`` conjunctival inoculation
`` `` conjunctivitis in 24 - 48 hrs
`` `` rabbits and guinea pigs

Epidemiology
`` widespread in environment
`` isolated from grass silage
`` `` pH >5
`` humans 70% in some areas
`` bovine up to 15%
`` ovine feces 40%
`` sewage
`` listerosis occurs more often in wither and spring
`` public heath risk
`` `` presence in healthy animals and milk

Diagnosis
`` gram and culture
`` `` correlate with brain stem histopath
`` cold enrichment enhances isolation

Immunity
`` cellular immunity mediated by
`` `` T cells
`` `` activated macrophages
`` `` main defense
`` meutrophis may play predominant early role
`` Nonactivated macrophages
`` `` do not control intracellular growth
`` `` process and present antigens
`` `` `` triggers production and release of lymphokines
`` `` `` `` activates macrophages

Vaccines
`` killed vaccines have littel or no effect
`` live avirulent vaccines
`` `` promising results
`` `` not available in Canada

Treatment
`` AM sometimes effective in early stages
`` disease frequently diagnosed too late
`` ampicillin very effective
`` Tetracycline and Trimethoprim are syergistic

Control
`` avoid poor quality silage
`` `` ie pH > 4.5 is bad
LISTERIA monocytogenes

Cattle and Sheep

3 Manifestations
Encephalitis

Septicaemiia

Abortion
Listeria monocytogenes

Cattle and Sheep

Encephalitis
Usually seen as a sporadic condition
`` epidemics have been described

Pathogenesis
`` associated with progression of infective agent alon branches of trigeminal nerve to brain
`` encephalitis is progressive
`` `` circling via more severe lesions on one side
`` `` unilateral facial paralysis may be present
`` `` death usually results in 2 - 4 days

Necropsy
`` gross lesions not obvious
`` ``` meninges may be cloudy and conjested
`` Histo
`` `` suppurative meningo encephalitis
`` `` perivascular cuffing
`` `` `` mainly monomuclears
`` `` `` microabscesses
`` `` `` foci of necrosis
`` `` `` gliosis
`` `` `` may have large accumulations of neutrophisl
`` `` medulla and pons most commonly involved

Bacteria may or may not be detected in Gram stained sections

Culture may be positive
`` organisms few in number
`` `` tf Cold Enrichment
`` `` `` isolation by refrigeration of Nervous Tissue @ 4 deg C
`` `` `` intervals up to 2 months
Listeria monocytogenes

Cattle and Sheep

Septicemia
Young Ruminants or Monogastrics of all ages

Enters through alimentary canal / rumen

Death is rapid

Multifocal Hepatitis may be seen
Listeria monocytogenes

Cattle and Sheep

Abortion
Organism localized in uterus
`` via bacteremia
`` placentitis
`` `` fetal septicemia
`` `` `` abortion
`` `` `` still birth
`` `` `` sick neonate

Sheep, cattle and other species

Cattle
`` abortion 4 - 8 months

Sheep
`` abortion terminal stages

Normally cow or ewe little effected
Listeria monocytogenes

Cattle and Sheep

Mastitis
Very rarely described in cattle
Listeria monocytogenes

Swine
Infection rarely reported in pigs

Occasional cases of septicemia
`` usually in young animals

Very rarely nervous form

Stillbirths and late abortions have also been recorded
Listeria monocytogenes

Poultry
Secondary to Primary Agent
`` parasitic
`` virus

Carcass
`` ofen debilitated
`` edematous
`` may be focal hepatitis
`` may be necrotic myocarditis
Listeria monocytogenes

Other Animals
Described in more tha 50 species
`` wild
`` birds
`` humans
ERYSIPELOTHRIX

2 SPECIES
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

Erysiopelothrix tonsillarum
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathie

Gen
Type species of genus

> 24 serotypes recognized

Primarily associated with infection of swine
`` Swine Erysipelas

Also disease in
`` Lambs
`` adult Sheep
`` Turkeys

Occasionally disease in
`` cattle
`` dogs
`` mink
`` horses
`` avian spp
`` mice
`` human

Present in surrounding slime of various fish
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathie

Morph and Cult
G+ slender rod
`` non motile
`` encapulated
`` `` more capsule = more virulence
`` non sporing
`` Aerobic
`` `` faculative anaerobe
`` rough and smooth forms

Culture
`` Smooth colony
`` `` alpha (greenish) hemolytic
`` `` no growth MacConkey
`` `` 0.8 mm dia
`` `` small straight rods
`` `` organisms from ACUTE cases
`` `` more virulent
`` Rough colony
`` `` alpha (greenish) hemolytic
`` `` no growth MacConkey
`` `` Pleomorphic and filamentous
`` `` `` up to 60 microm
`` `` organisms from
`` `` `` chronic lesions
`` `` `` repeated passage invitro of smooth
`` `` less virulent than smooth
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathiae

Biochem
Catalase Neg

Generally H2S + in TSI

Test tube brush growth on stab line
`` gelatin 3 - 5 days @ 20 deg C
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathie

Habitat
Soil
`` up to 35 days @ 3 deg C
`` 2 days @ 30 deg C
`` esp pig housing

Note pigs carry organism in tonsils
`` shed in feces
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathiae

Resistance
Resists
`` drying
`` pickling
`` salting
`` smoking

Long survival in putrefying carcases

Survive in feces
`` up to 6 months
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathiae

Virulence
Capsule
`` antiphagocytic

Neuraminidase
`` production of enzyme may correlate with virulence
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathiae

Pathogenicity - 4
Primarily Swine

Acute Septicemia
`` 3 - 12 months
`` `` decline Maternal AB

Subacute Skin Lesions
`` urticarial aka DIAMOND
`` AG/AB complexes in subQ vasculature
`` almost pathonemonic
`` similar to Swine Fever Virus
`` `` also maintains appetite
`` `` tf differentiate via penicillin

Chronic
`` Endocarditis
`` arthritis

Abortion

Note
`` course of disease depends markedly on
`` `` virulence of strain
`` `` resistance of host
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathiae

Acute Disease
Clinical
`` Fever
`` Anorexia
`` depression
`` vomition
`` stiff gait

Frequently fatal if untreated

Red Patches on skin
`` esp ears, abdomen, medial thigh

Spleen and Lymph nNodes
`` enlarged
`` reddened

Mucosa of Stomach and Intestine
`` inflammed
`` sometimes hemmorrhagic
`` may be ulcerated
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathiae

Skin Form
Less Acute
`` may recover without treatment

DIAMOND SHAPED LESIONS
`` red or purple
`` may be elevated
`` several cm
`` back and abdomen
`` May become necrotic
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathaie

Chronic From
Endocarditis
`` typical vegetative lessions on heart valves
`` `` exp mitral (left AV)

Mainly observed in Swine

Also
`` sheep
`` cattle

Excercise Intolerance
`` sudden death when moved
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathaie

Arthritic
Chronic
`` degenerative changes in joints

Often seen in mature animals
`` can occur in young

Severe Lameness
`` even though mild lesions

Proliferation of synovium
`` conjestion
`` increase in synovial fluid
`` `` slight turbidity
`` `` NOT purulent

Ulceration of joint surface cartilage
`` inflammation at base of ulcer

Severe Cases
`` ankylosis

Lesions may result from
`` Antigen Persistence in situ
`` `` induces immune mediated damage
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathaie

Sheep
Normally Polyarthritis
`` 2 - 3 month lambs
`` lesions per swine

Older sheep
`` cause of post dipping lameness
`` `` acute cellulitis of lower limbs
`` `` mulitplies in organic matter in dip water
`` `` penetrates small wounds in skin
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathaie

Cattle
Arthritis
`` rarely
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathie

Poultry
Turkeys more commonly affected
`` mature birds
`` more males
`` `` via fighting

Acute Septicemia

Cyanosis
`` blue comb

Large hemorrahges
`` heart muscles
`` legs
`` serous membranes

Similar acute disease occasionally seen in
`` ducks
`` chickens
`` pheasants
`` other birds
ERYSIPELOTHRIX tonsillarum
Dogs

Arthritis

Endocarditis
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathiae

Human
Usually self limiting cellulitis
`` erysipeloid
`` following skin wound

Rare Cases of
`` septicemia
`` endocarditis
`` arthritis
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathaie

Fish
Non Clinical Infection

Found in surface slime
`` human risk for
`` `` erysipeloid lesions
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathaie

Marine Mammals
Septicemia
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathaie

Epidemiology
Organism passed in feces and urine of healthy pigs

Present in health pig
`` tonsils
`` gallblader

Carrier animals may subsequently
`` show clinical disease

Survives many months
`` carcasses of affected animals

Survives outside of body
`` via flies, dried blood
`` weeks summer
`` months winter

Infection of susceptible swine
`` mainly oral
`` possibly transcutaneous

Turkeys
`` contaminated semen
`` fight wounds
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathaie

Predisposing Factors
Environmental Stress

Dietary Change

Fatigue

Sublclinical aflatoxicosis
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathaie

Diagnosis
Direct Grams Stain and Culture
`` skin biopsy from both sides of lesion
`` spleen
`` liver
`` lung
`` arthritis
`` `` several joint samples

Can be hard to culture
`` tf ELISA for ABs
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathaie

Immunity
Developed Immunity is Good
`` rare for second occurance of acute disease in recovered animal

Hyperimmune serum
`` produced from horses
`` 2 week period of protection

Attenuated vaccine strains available

Killed Vaccines (aka Bacterins) available

Antibody opsonins important

Phagocytic function
`` via Mononuclear phagocytes
`` NOT via PMN (neutrophils)
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathaie

Control
Quarrantine Replacement Animals
`` minimum 30 days

Proper disposal of infected carcasses

Vaccination recommended
`` areas with pervious history
`` multiple serotypes
`` tf use 2 vaccines to cross protect
ERYSIPELOTHRIX rhusiopathaie

Treatment
Penicillin
`` highly effective

Tylosin

Tetracyclines
GENUS BACILLUS
Aerobic (facultative) spore bearing bacilli
`` G+ or G variable

Long threads
`` forms rhizoid colonies

Usually Motile

Catalase Positive

Most are saprophytes
`` capable of living in innanimate media

Bacillus Anthracis
`` highly pathogenic

Many organisms of group
`` air
`` soil
`` water
`` dust
`` wool
`` feces
`` dried grass and straw
BACILLUS Anthracis

Morph and Cult
Rod shaped
`` 3 x 0.4 to 9 x 2 microm
`` parallel sides
`` ends usually
`` `` straight
`` `` slightly curved

In vitro
`` single and diplobacillary

In vivo
`` long chains (boxcar)

Agar Colony
`` ground glass surface
`` waxy appearance at edge
`` aka Medusa Head appearance

Forms Capsule
`` esp tissue
`` blood agar
`` > 20% CO2
BACILLUS Anthracis

vs

BACILLUS spp.
Non Motile vs Usually Motile

No or slight hemolysis vs Wide Zone hemolysis

Mucoid colonies on bicarbonate agar under 20% CO2 vs Rough Colonies

Poly D glutamic acid capsule present vs absent in most

Long chains in culture vs short chains in culture

no turbidity or pellicle in broth vs often turbidity or pellicle in broth

Slow gelatin liquefaction vs rapid

Penicillin susceptible @ 0.5 units/ml vs resistant

Pathogenic to lab animals vs mostly non pathogenic

Gamma phage susceptible vs resistant
BACILLUS Anthracis

Resistance
Sporulated Forms
`` considerable resistance
`` 10 mins boiling water survives
`` 30 min boiling water kills

Spores only form
`` presence of oxygen
`` specific nutrients
`` DO NOT form in UNOPENED carcasses

Spores
`` generally very resistant to disinfectants
`` `` except oxidizing Agents
`` `` `` KMnO4, H2O2
`` viable in soil
`` `` > 60 yrs
BACILLUS Anthracis

Virulence
Poly D glutamate Capsule
`` antiphagocytic
`` antiopsonizing
`` plasma mediated

Tripartite Toxin
`` Edema Factor (EF)
`` Protective Antigen (PA)
`` Lethal Factor (LF)
`` plasma mediated
`` `` different plasmid

EF + PA = Edema
PA + LF = Lethal
PA + LF + EF = Edema and Lethal

EF and LF REQUIRE PA for activity

Toxin major systemic damage in host
`` vascualar permeability
`` capillary thrombosis
`` due to induction of generalized release
`` `` IL-1
BACILLUS Anthracis

Pathogenesis
Most common routh of infection
`` Oral
`` organism present in
`` `` soil
`` `` `` contaminated pasture
`` `` food stuffs
`` `` `` contaminated MBM

Some cases via
`` infected wounds
`` arthropod bites

Bacillus enters
`` phrynx (tonsil)
`` small intestine
`` often temporarily held up in local lymph nodes
`` `` toxins produced stimulate edema
`` `` `` death via asphyxiation if lymph node in throat

Alternatively
`` septicemia
`` death via systemic toxin production

Incubation period
`` 1 - 5 days

Course of Disease
`` few hours to 2 days
`` throat form
`` `` may live several days
`` `` mainly seen in pigs
`` septicemic form
`` `` animal dies within a few hours
`` `` `` 48 hrs max

Toxin damages endothelium
`` severe edema
`` hemorrhage via
`` `` nose
`` `` GIT
`` `` Urinary Tract
``
BACILLUS anthracis

CATTLE
Typically acute septicemic disease

If suspected DO NOT open carcass
`` otherwise release massive #s of organism
`` `` will sporulate on exposure to air
`` otherwise
`` `` cannot sporulate
`` `` overcome by other putrifying bacteria

Gross enlargement of spleen

Petechiae and ecchymoses on serous membranes

General toxic degeneration of parenchymatous organs

Absence of rigor mortis
BACILLUS anthracis

Pigs
Acute Form
`` excess fluid in abdomen
`` `` clear or slightly blood tinged
`` severe conjestion of SI and draining vessels
`` necrotic mesenteric lymph nodes and draining area
`` general lesions of toxemia

Throat Form
`` edema of throat
`` `` may extend down nect
`` submaxillary lymph nodes
`` `` necrosis
`` `` possible hemmorhage
`` Death via asphyxiatin
`` `` via obstructive edema
BACILLUS anthracis

Sheep
Similar to Cattle
BACILLUS anthracis

Horses
Throat or Septicemic form
BACILLUS anthracis

Dog
Throat Form

or

Chronic carbuncel like lesion in mouth
BACILLUS anthracis

Diagnosis
Cattle
`` aspirate blood from superficial vessel

Pigs
`` swab endematous area in throat

Treat smears HgCl2 1:1000 for 5 min before staining

Polychrome Methylen Blue
`` square ended
`` pinkish purple capsule

Gram stain
`` G+ rods

Clostridia
`` round ended
`` no capusule
`` `` except Clostridum perfringens
`` may form spores
BACILLUS anthracis

Immunity
Antibody to toxin protects

Vaccination
`` "avirulent" spore vaccine available
`` do not use AM for 4 - 5 days post vaccination
`` annual booster for populations at risk
`` do not use within 60 days of slaughter for food
BACILLUS anthracis

Treatment
Sensitive to Penicillin

Illness to far advanced to treat in most cases

Humans
`` suspicion of GI or Inhalation
`` `` immediate AM treatment
BACILLUS anthracis

Control
Reportable Disease
`` local vet

Destroy
`` Carcass
`` in contact material
`` burning or deep burial

Prevent spore formulation
`` do not open carcass
`` disinfect premises

Fumigate or Sterilize
`` clothes
`` instruments

Soil contamination
`` immunize stock

Quarantine
`` suspected animals
`` in contact animals
BACILLUS cereus
Cattle
`` acute gangrenous mastitis
`` `` Uncommon
`` `` sometimes fatal
`` implicated in sporadic abortion

Sheep
`` implicated in sporadic abortion

Human food poisoning
`` some strains
`` enterotoxin
`` usually not severe
BACILLUS licheniformis
Abortion in cows
`` increasing isolated
`` source may be heavy growth in silage
ENTEROBACTERIACEAE

Family
Large group of G- bacilli
`` essentially intestinal parasites
`` `` also includes sprophytics

Some are highly pathogenic

Many are opportunist invaders

Non Sporing

Non motile
`` peritrichate flagellae

Easily grown on media

Aerobic
`` faculatative anaerobes

All species
`` ferment glucose
`` `` with acid production
`` `` commonly gas
`` Oxidase Negative
`` some ferment lactose
`` `` Escherichia
`` `` Klebsiella
`` `` Enerobacter
`` some are Non Lactose Fermenters
`` `` Salmonella
`` `` Proteus
`` `` Yersinia
`` `` Shigella
`` `` `` variable by spp.

Genera in Family
`` 28

Many of these organisms are normal GI flora

Initial Identification
`` colony morphology
`` Colour on MacConkey
`` `` lactose fermentors RED
ESCHERICHIA coli
Normal Flora
`` 10>5 / g in feces
to Extreme pathogen

Relatively resistant to drying
`` 3 months

Survives and multiplies in environment

Hundreds of serotypes
ESCHERICHIA coli

Cultural
G- bacilli

Marked wide zone beta (complete) hemolysis
`` blood agar
`` some strains
`` hemolysis tends to be associated with
`` `` pathogenicity
ESCHERICHIA coli

Resistance
Resists Heating
`` 60 deg C 15 mins
`` some strains

Drying
`` moderate resistance

Killed
`` disinfectants
`` pasteurization
ESCHERICHIA coli

Ecology
Intestinal Organism

Survives out side host
`` > 6 months
`` `` in manure
`` `` `` detection indicates fecal contamination
ESCHERICHIA coli

Antigenic Structure
O Antigens
`` cell wall
`` LPS
`` aprox 180

H antigens
`` pili
`` `` flagellin protein
`` > 50
`` Pigs
`` `` F4 (K88 old)
`` Cattle
`` `` f5 (K99 old)

K antigens
`` Capsule
`` `` polysaccharide or protein
`` > 100
ESCHERICHIA coli

General Virulence Factors
Capsule
`` Antiphagocytic
`` `` important in septicemic strains
`` capsule functions as adhesins
`` `` only a few strains

Endotoxin
`` LPS important virulence factor
`` `` septicemia
`` `` mastitis
`` `` endometritis
`` strong host reaction
`` `` Fever
`` `` hypotension
`` `` `` shock
`` `` complement activiation
`` `` endothelial damage
`` `` abortion (secondary)
`` `` lekopenia
`` `` `` followed by leuocytosis

siderophores
`` septicemic strains
`` `` often carry Col V plasmid
`` `` `` genses for
`` `` `` `` serum resistance
`` `` `` `` iron uptake
ESCHERICHIA coli

Pathogenicity
Responsible for many enteric infections in young animals
`` esp
`` `` calves
`` `` young swine
`` `` lambs
`` `` puppies
`` also acute speticemia in young

Sequelae
`` meningitis
`` polyarthris
`` endocarditis

Important cause of mastitis in cattle
`` mild chronic
`` severe acute fatal
`` `` usually within 2 weeks of calving
`` sheep and sows also affected
ESCHERICHIA coli

Neonatal Disease
Septicemic
`` no ingestion of colostrum
`` `` tf no transfer of maternal immune globulins
`` infection through
`` `` umblilicus
`` `` GIT
`` rapid invasion
`` death within 24 - 48 hrs
`` septicemic lesions
`` `` liver, lung, heart, kidney, spleen, meninges
`` `` `` can culture large #s immediately post mortum
`` More common in calves than piglets

Diarrhic
`` most common form
`` `` both calves and piglets
`` diarrhea prominant feature
`` most common < 1 weak
`` also older animals esp piglets to immediate post weaning
ESCHERICHIA coli

Diarrheic Disease Pathotypes
aka pathovars

Enerotocigneic - ETEC

Shigatoxin producing - STEC
`` includes Enteropathogenic - EPEC

Enterohaemorrhagic - EHEC

ENEROINVASIVE - EIEC

Enteroaggregative - EAggEC

NECROTOXIC - NTEC
ESCHERICHIA coli

ETEC
Enterotoxigenic

Usually species specific E.coli serotypes possessing
`` Adhesive Pili
`` `` plasmid mediated
`` `` attachement to jejunum and ileum
`` Enterotoxins
`` `` ST
`` `` LT

STa
`` Heat stable toxin
`` activates quanylcyclase in intestinal mucosa
`` inhibits influx of Na and Cl ions
`` stimulates serction of Cl and bicarb ions
`` tf decreased absorption and increased eflux of water

STb
`` stimulates increase in PGE2 levels
`` `` induces deodenal and jejunal secretion
`` `` `` water
`` `` `` electrolytes

LT
`` heat labile toxin
`` stimulates adenylcyclase
`` `` decreases absorption of sodium
`` `` increases efflux of
`` `` `` Na
`` `` `` Cl
`` `` `` water
ESCHERICHIA coli

Enterotoxigenic Serovars

Adhesins and Hosts

Sadly have to "know this"
Adhesin / Host

F4 (K88) / Pig

F5 (K99) / Calf, pig, lamb

F6 (987P) / Pig, calf

F18 / pig

F41 / calf, pig

AIDA 1 / pig

Some strains produce more than one fimbrial antigen
`` could be an antigen that vaccines or PCRs dont cover
`` `` tf Autogenous vaccine

Enterotoxigenic presentation has also been reproted in dogs and horses
`` rare
ESCHERICHIA coli

Enteropathogenic
EPEC

These strains attach intimately to
`` surfaces of intestinal epi cells
`` `` eface microvilli
`` `` cause cells to form actin pedestals

Affected Spp
`` RABBITS
`` dogs
`` pigs
`` humans
`` other animals

Lesion
`` attaching and effacing
`` collapse of microvilli

Intestinal Location
`` varies with species

Virulence Factors
`` Adhesion to intestinal epi cells
`` `` via bundle forming pilus
`` `` `` plasmid coded bdf gene
`` `` pili attach to particular intestinal cells
`` closer attachment via intimin protein
`` `` chromosomal gene eae
`` `` `` E. coli attaching effacing
ESCHERICHIA coli

Shiga Toxin Producing
STEC
`` includes Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC)

Produce attached and effacing lesions

Also produce hemorrhagic diarrhea

Most recognized serotype
`` 0157:H7
`` `` hamburger disease
`` `` hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans
`` `` high number of receptors for toxins in kidneys
`` `` 10 bacteria infective in susceptible humans
`` `` `` host genetic factors

Note other strains produce verotoxins
`` hemorrhagic diarrhea
`` `` cattle
`` `` pigs
`` `` cats
`` `` dogs
`` `` rabbits
`` `` some zoonotic
`` `` `` can be carried by healthy animals

Virulence Factors
`` Shiga Like toxins
`` `` STx1
`` `` STx2
`` `` Varients
`` `` `` STx2c
`` `` `` STx2d
`` `` `` STx2e
`` `` `` `` 0139 Edema disease pigs
`` `` `` STxf
`` `` baceriophage coded
`` Action of these toxins
`` `` local via endothelial cells
`` `` systemic via endothelial cells in other sites mainly
`` `` `` kidney
`` `` `` brain
`` ``
ESCHERICHIA coli

Edema Disease
Unusual GIT infection in SWINE
`` not classified as enteropathogenic

Caused mainly by serovoars
`` 0138
`` 0139
`` 0141

These Strains produce verotoxin
`` STx2e

Absorbed toxin damages endothelium
`` produces edema
`` `` intestine
`` `` stomach
`` `` mesentery
`` `` Sub Q
`` `` Brain

Characterized by NERVOUS signs

Associated with post weaning

Some Edema Disease E. coli strains may also be
`` Entertoxigenic
`` `` tf function as both
`` `` `` ETEC E.coli and Edema Disease E.coli
ESCHERICHIA coli

Enteroinvasive
EIEC

Destroys enterocytes
`` Dysentery syndrome humans

Rare in animals
ESCHERICHIA coli

Enteroaggregative
EAggEC

Diarrhea in
`` children
`` piglets
`` rabbits?
`` other animals?
ESCHERICHIA coli

Necrotoxigenic
NTEC

Produce cytotoxic necrotizing factors
`` CNF1
`` CNF2

Diarrhea
`` pigs
`` calves
`` dogs
`` rabbits?
`` horses?
ESCHERICHIA coli

Dogs and Cats
Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)
`` Specific strains
`` relapse common
`` `` Invasion of bladder epi
`` `` `` tf reemerge after high Vd AM treatment

Pyometra
`` associated with pseudopregnancy in bitches

Granulomatous colitis
`` boxer dogs
`` specific strains

Non specific
`` wound
`` navel
`` skin

Neo natal diarrhea

Post porturient metritis
ESCHERICHIA coli

Poultry
Infection of egg yolk
`` bacteria penetrates shell
`` embroy dies or
`` hatches sick
`` `` death up to 3 weeks after hatching

Infection of serous membranes in broilers
`` often secondary to other agents
`` `` ie Mycoplasma
`` `` ie Infectious Bronchitis Virus
`` pale yellow white fibrinous material
`` `` surface of air sacs and pericardium
`` `` joint cavities

Septicemia
`` high mortality

Cellulitis
`` rapid growth genetics
`` `` weakened skin immunity allows entry

Coligrnuloma
ESCHERICHIA coli

Foals
Septicemia
`` inadequate colostrum
`` `` systemic spread
`` diarrhea?
ESCHERICHIA coli

Epidemiology
Varies with species and disease

Essentially enteric organism
`` but can survive outside host for several months
`` easily contaminated enviromnent
`` easy oral ingestion

Pathogenic strains
`` find a suitable environment in animal
`` multiplication
`` become dominant species
ESCHERICHIA coli

Diagnosis
Direct Smear
`` SMALL intestine
`` `` jejunum #s normally LOW
`` `` `` > 100/oilfield Significant

Culture - Biochemical tests
`` serotype best if possible

Demonstration of enterotoxins
`` immunologic methods

PCR Detection of Genes encoding
`` enterotoxins
`` shiga-like toxins
`` other virulence factors
`` via culture from feces

Isolation from Organs
`` must be from from fresh dead in order to be significant
ESCHERICHIA coli

Control
Hygiene

Management
`` avoid crowding

Vaccines for most common serotypes
`` F4
`` F5
`` F6
`` F41
`` used in pregnant animals
`` `` tf colostral protection neonates
`` oral vaccination of piglets
`` killed pathogenic strains
`` `` in feed
`` `` prevent post weaning diarrhea
`` `` extreme situations
ESCHERICHIA coli

Treatment
Particulrly caplbe of developing multiple AM resistance
`` tf sensitivity testing
`` transferable
`` `` tf Narrowest spectrum possible

Approach Each outbreak via sensitivity testing
`` sensitivity results may not match therapeutic results
SALMONELLA
Ubiquitous Parasite
`` human
`` animals
`` birds
`` reptiles

Major Zoonotic
`` agent of human food poisoning

Grouping
`` O Antigen

Specific identity
`` flagellar antigens

Two Species
`` Salmonella enterica
`` Salmonella bongori

Most Clinical Salmonellae strains
`` S. enterica subspp I

> 2300 Serovars (serotypes)

Motile via peritrichate flagellae
`` except
`` `` S. enterica S. Pullorum
`` `` S. enterica S. Gallinarum
SALMONELLA

Culture Morph
G- Bacilli

MacConkey
`` non lactose fermenters
`` pale colonies
`` `` not definitive
SALMONELLA

Ecology
Intestinal Organism
`` not regarded as normal intestinal flora
SALMONELLA

Resistance
Moderately resistant to environment
`` up to 20 min @ 60 deg C
`` tf "exotic salmonella"
`` `` in proteins of MBM

Feces Survival
`` 2 months winter
`` 3 months summer

Dried Feces Survival
`` reported to 36 months
SALMONELLA

Antigenic Structure
Very Complex

Primary Grouping
`` O antigens
`` `` somatic antigens
`` `` `` arabic numerals

Secondary Subgrouping
`` Serovars (species)
`` based on H antigens
`` `` may be diphasic
`` `` `` ie flagellae may assume two forms
`` `` `` `` Form 1 Specific
`` `` `` `` `` small letters
`` `` `` `` Form 2 Group
`` `` `` `` `` arabic numerals

Vi Antigen (somatic)
`` additional to O and H
`` intraperitneal virulence mouse
`` `` Vi antiserum passively protects mice against living virulent typhoid bacilli
`` `` O antiserum only protects against endotoxin
`` Vi Antigen associated with protection against
`` `` phagocytosis
`` `` bactericidal effect of serum

Kauffman White Scheme

Groups
`` A, B, C1, C2, D

Sero Types ie
`` S. Typhimurum and S. Newport
`` ``non host adapted
`` S. Gsllinarum and S. pullorum
`` `` reportable disease
`` `` non motile
`` `` `` key differentiator

O Antigens (Cell Wall)

H Antigen
`` phases 1 and 2
SALMONELLA

Dieases 3
Septicemia
`` localized lesions
`` `` abortion
`` `` `` cattle sheep horses
`` `` embolic pneumonia
`` `` `` mainly pigs

Acute Enteritis
`` ileitis-colitis

Chronic Diarrhea
`` wasting

Disease Type Depends on
`` dose
`` strain virulence
`` host susceptability
`` `` age
`` `` immune status

Recovery from clinical disease
`` asymptomatic carrage state
`` `` months to years
`` `` tf INTERMITTENT shedding
`` `` `` esp stressed
SALMONELLA

Pathogenesis
Initial Event
`` colonization of SI
`` `` attachment mediated by
`` `` `` at least 3 different adhesins (fimbriae)

Second Event
`` mucosal invasion
`` `` ileum and colon
`` `` via brush border
`` `` severe inflammation lamina propria
`` `` `` host adapted types
`` `` `` `` peyers patches
`` `` `` `` mesenteric lymph nodes
`` `` `` `` liver
`` `` `` `` septicemia
`` `` survival in phagocytic cells
`` `` `` some strains are facultative intracellular parasites

Infection most commonly oral
`` consumption of contaminated food
SAMONELLA

Epidemiology
Capable of surviving and multiplying in environment

Large number of recovered or latent carriers
`` turkeys - 70%
`` Broilers - 50%
`` Hogs - 20%
`` Dairy Cow - 12%
`` Beef Cow - 3%
`` Horses - 20 - 70%
`` `` esp anesthesia stress
`` Dogs - 1 - 36%
`` Cats - 0 - 14%
tf extensive sources of infection

Excretion
`` feces
`` milk
`` `` especially at partuition
`` eggs
`` feeding habits create high exposure
SALMONELLA

Diagnosis
Culture - Biochemical tests

Final serotyping

Dection of antibodies against
`` O and H antigens

Negative
`` requires Three consecutive cultures

ELISA
`` not accurate for S. suis spp.

PCR
`` feces enrichment broth
SALMONELLA

Immunity
Humoral and cell mediated important

Killed Vaccines
`` proven low efficacy

Attenuated Virulent Strains
`` most efficient
SALMONELLA

Treatment
Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing
`` highly reccomended

Effective AMs
`` Fluoroquinolones
`` Ampicillin
`` Trimethroprim
`` Tetrachylines
`` `` usually effective

AM use controversial
`` use only when systemic clinical signs ?
SALMONELLA

Control
#s are everything
`` tf Management
`` tf Hygiene

Vaccination
`` killed vaccines useless
`` attenuated live can be effective
`` `` S. suis vaccine reported to work

AMs
`` high resistance

Intestinal Flora Seeding
`` probiotics
`` works for chickens
`` mixed results horses

Reportable Diseases
`` Fowl Typhoid
`` `` S. Gallinarum
`` Pullorum Diseases
`` `` S. Pullorum

Reptiles
`` S. arizona spp.
`` `` poultry
SALMONELLA enterica subsp arizonae
aka S. Arizona

Often produces acid in lactose
`` but not dulcitol
`` ferments malonate
`` `` key differentiator

Specific diarrheal disease in turkeys
`` also
`` `` nervous signs
`` `` blindness
`` transmission
`` `` farm to farm
`` `` via eggs

Main Hosts
`` reptiles
`` carriers or clinical disease
`` `` depends on numbers

Pathogenicity
`` Normally fatal in turkey poults
`` `` 3 - 21 days
`` `` may also affect 3 - 4 weeks

`` Humans rarely
`` `` Septicemia
`` `` pyemia
`` contaminated food
SHIGELLA

Whole enchilada
G- bacilli

Species
`` Shigella dysenteriae
`` Shigella flexnerii
`` Shigella boydii
`` Shigella sonnei

Resistance is not high

Virulence factors
`` cytotoxin (shiga-toxin)
`` `` plasmid mediated cell wall antigens
`` `` enable invasion and survival inside phagocytes

Pathogenicity
`` important in primates
`` rarely reported other animals
`` `` diarrhea
`` isolated from feces of clinically normal dogs
`` `` transient excreters
`` very low #s for infection
`` invades enterocytes
`` `` tf dysentry

Epidemiology
`` as per other enterobacteriaceae

Diagnosis
`` specific bacteriology

Treatment
`` AM sensitivity testing
`` Resistance
`` `` sulphonamides
`` `` ampicillin
`` `` tetracycline
`` `` `` some strains
`` often transferable
KLEBSIELLA Pneumoniae

Cult Morph
G-
`` usually highly capsulated
`` non motile

Culture
`` non hemolytic
`` mucoid to watery via capsule
`` `` non mucoid variants occur
`` MacConkey
`` `` mucoid lactose fermenter
KLEBSIELLA pneumoniae

Antigenic Structure
Well defined capsular antigens
`` 77 in all

O antigens
`` share many properties with
`` `` E.coli O antigens
KLEBSIELLA pneumoniae

Virulence
Capsule
`` prevents phagocytosis
`` attachment
`` esp Mare GI

Pili

Exotoxin
KLEBSIELLA pneumoniae

Pathogenicity
Considerable variation between types

Does NOT depend only upon presence or absence of big capsule

Bovine
`` mastitis
`` `` indistinguishable from E.coli mastitis
`` usually aquired via woodsavings or sawdust

Equine
`` metritis
`` abortion
`` `` serotypes mainly
`` `` `` 1, 2, 5
`` neonatal septicemia
`` `` arthritis
`` `` `` must sensitivity test
`` pnemonia
`` `` rarely
`` veneral transmission

Swine
`` acute post parturient mastitis
`` `` similar to E.coli type

Dogs
`` urogenital tract disease
`` otitsi externa
`` pneumonia
`` `` rarely
KLEBSIELLA pneumoniae

Epidemiology
Survives
`` feces
`` soil

Most Commonly saprophyte of Genital Tract
`` may be transferred venerally in horses
`` stallion or mare carriers
KLEBSIELLA pneumoniae

Diag Immun Treatement
Diagnosis
`` Culture
`` may not be certain of association with disease

Immunity
`` little knowledge of specific immunity

Treatment
`` AM sensitivity test
`` usually sensitive to
`` `` Gentamicin
`` `` Chloramphenicol
ENTEROBACTER

W enchilata
G-
``bacilli
`` motile
`` often capsulated

7 Species
`` `` lactose fermenters

Rarely pathogenic
`` associated with diverse infections in dogs and cats
`` `` cholecystitis
`` `` pyothorax
`` `` UTI
`` `` bacteremia
`` Cows
`` `` occasionally mastitis
PROTEUS

W. enchilata
G- rod
`` Non lactose fermentor
`` charcteristic swarming on agar
`` `` swimming via flagella

Pathogenicity
`` typically opportunistic
`` Strong urease producer
`` `` tf UTI
`` `` urolithiasis
`` pneumonia
`` otitis externa
`` `` esp dogs

Habitat
`` primarily GI
`` decomposing animal organic matter

Treatment
`` AM sensitivity REQUIRED
`` multi resistant
YERSINIA pseudotuberculosis

Cult Morph
G-
`` small
`` pleomorphic
`` coccobacillus
`` Motility
`` `` good @ 22 deg C
`` `` not @ 37 deg C

Culture
`` nonhemolytic
`` MacConkey
`` `` very slight growth

Antigens
`` V immunogenic protein
`` W Lipoprotein
`` `` lost in vitro 37 deg C
YERSINIA

Resistance
Feces Survival
`` long at low temp
YERSINIA pseudotuberculosis

Pathogenicity
Facultive Intracellular Parasite
`` as are all vet spp.
`` killed by neutrophils
`` NOT killed by macrophages

Produces diseas in wide variety of animals
`` mainly
`` `` guinea pigs and other rodents
`` also affects
`` `` cats
`` `` zoo carnivores
`` `` birds
`` `` swine
`` `` muskox
`` sporadic outbreaks
`` `` chinchilla and mink
`` Rarely affects
`` `` sheep, cattle, horses
`` `` `` Genital system
`` `` `` `` abortion
`` `` `` `` neonatal death
`` `` `` `` epididymo-orchitis
`` human
`` `` mesenteric lymphadenitis children
`` `` septicemia adults

Pathogenies
`` Depends on numbers
`` Oral
`` `` no lesions
`` `` `` carrier
`` `` `` `` stress
`` `` `` `` `` enteritis
`` oral
`` `` enteritis
`` `` `` regional lymph nodes
`` `` `` `` tubercle like lesions
`` `` `` `` liver, spleen other organs
`` `` `` `` `` tubercle like lesions
`` `` acute septicemia
`` `` `` death
YERSINIA pseudotuberculosis

Epi Diag Immun Treatment
Epidemiology
`` widely distributed in nature
`` `` alimentary tract of normal animal
`` `` `` pathogenic under stress conditions
`` zoonatic

Diagnosis
`` culture and biochemical tests
`` from lesions

Immunity
`` Vaccination rarely used
`` low virulence live organisms
`` `` interparenteral inoculations

Treatment
`` Chlortetracycline
`` streptomycin
`` chloramphenicol
YERSINIA enterocolitca

Morph Cult
G- coccobacillus

Psychrophilic
`` best isolated in broth
`` `` 4 deg C
`` `` 1 - 3 weeks
`` `` final incubation
`` `` `` 23 deg C 2 - 5 days
`` motile @ 22 deg C
`` Urease +
YERSINIA entercolitica

Epidemilogy
GI tract animals

Sources of Drinking water

Most often isolated pathogenic serotypes
`` carried in Normal GI pigs
`` `` also cattle, dogs, cats

Serological Evidence
`` little relationship between animal and human strains
YERSINIA enterocolitca

Antigenic Structure
> 30 Serotypes

Most common isolates in clincal cases
`` 0:3
`` 0:5
`` 0:8
`` 0:9
`` );27
YERSINIA enterocolitca

Pathogenicity
Infectious Dos
`` 10>8 to 10>9
`` refigerated food
`` `` seafood
`` `` icecream

Causes
`` lymphadenitis
`` ileitis
`` `` ocassionally ulcerative enteritis
`` diarrhea
`` fever
`` abdominal pain
`` `` humans
`` `` chinchilla
`` `` young dogs
`` `` cats
`` `` goats
`` `` pigs

Systemic Disease
`` less capable than Y. pseudotuburculosis
`` remarkably associated with serotype 0:8
YERSINIA enterocolitica

Diagnostic
Special CIN culture medium
`` enhances isolation

Feces

Lymph node biopsy

Parenchymal organs
YERSINIA enterocolitica

Treatment
Fluroquinolones

Trimethoprim-sulfonamides

Tetracycline
YERSINIA pestis
G-
`` safety pin morphology
`` `` significant but not pathonomonic

Causes Bubonic Plague
`` swollen lymph node
`` rat flea borne

Endemic Sylvatic infection W USofA ground squirrels
`` may spread via fleas to dogs and cats and to humans
`` `` cases of infection via handling infected tissue
`` cats highly susceptable
`` `` highly virulent to humans via droplets
`` `` `` tf pneumonic presentation
`` `` `` `` systemic within 2 days
`` Black Death
`` `` via endotoxin mediated gangrene

Septicemia, lymphadenitis, pneumonia

2 isolations in Canada
`` bushy tailed BC woodrats

Beware Recently arrived from SW USofA Cats
`` `` swollen lymph nodes in head
`` `` `` several day incubation period

Some resistant strains emerging
CAMPYLOBACTER

GENUS
G- Slender Rods
`` 0.2 to 0.5 mm long
`` spiral appearance in longer forms
`` comma or SEAGULL shape in shorter forms

Domestic Animals
`` GI
`` Genital
CAMPYLOBACTER fetus subsp venerealis

Morph Cult
G- Slender Rods
`` 0.2 to 0.5 mm long
`` spiral appearance in longer forms
`` comma or SEAGULL shape in shorter forms

Culture
`` Microaerophilic
`` slow growth (2-5 days)
`` Translucent dew drop colonies
`` `` up to 1 mm dia
`` `` may be rough
`` `` `` multiple morphology in a given culture
`` 25 - 37 deg C
CAMPYLOBACTER fetus subsp venerealis

Virulence
S Layer surface protein
`` antiphagocytic
`` antigenic variation
`` `` tf chronic infection
`` `` `` esp bull prepuce

Cell Wall LPS

No exotoxins
CAMPYLOBACTER fetus subsp venerealis

Pathogenicity
Cows
`` Infertility
`` `` early embryonic death and reabsorption
`` `` subsequent chronic metritis (months)
`` `` `` increased very late returns
`` Abortion
`` `` small %
`` `` `` usually 4 - 6 months

Bulls
`` carried on preputial mucosa
`` survives for years
`` no lesions of significance

First Evidence of Disease
`` increased #s cows returning to estrus late in breeding season
CAMPYLOBACTER fetus subsp venerealis

Epidemiology
Venereal Spread

Bulls
`` persistent asymptomatic carriers

Beef Herds
`` cow infertilty may lead to use of 2 or 3 x normal bull number

Cow can carry organism for short period
`` tf infect new bulls
CAMPYLOBACTER fetus subsp venerealis

Diagnosis
Cow
`` microscopic examination of
`` `` cervico-vaginal mucus
`` vaginal mucus agglutination test
`` `` more value for herd test

Smears
`` fetal stomach contents
`` cotyledons
`` stain
`` `` Methylene Blue
`` `` Gram
`` `` FAT

Culture
`` aborted fetal stomach contents
`` `` usually pure culture
`` cotyledon
`` `` may be contaminats
`` cervical vaginal mucus
`` `` may be contaminated
`` hard to grow
`` `` requires transport medium
PCR
`` emerging

Bull
`` sheath washings
`` F.A. Test
`` Culture
`` `` enrichment transport medium required
CAMPYLOBACTER fetus subsp venerealis

Immunity
Vaccines
`` formalin killed (aka bacterin)
`` suspended in oily adjuvatn
`` useful
`` `` probably need to revaccinate annually
`` result in IgG opsonins
`` `` imobilize and clear bacteria from genital tract

Cure Claim for vaccination of bulls
CAMPYLOBACTER fetus subsp venerealis

Treatment
Streptomycin parenterally effective in cows
`` but rest for a few months
`` `` also clears infection in most animals

Bull
`` sheath washing with streptomycin is effective
`` semen often treated with
`` `` penicillin and streptomycin
CAMPYLOBACTER fetus fetus
G- Slender Rods
`` 0.2 to 0.5 mm long
`` spiral appearance in longer forms
`` comma or SEAGULL shape in shorter forms

Culture
`` Microaerophilic
`` slow growth (2-5 days)
`` Translucent dew drop colonies
`` `` up to 1 mm dia
`` `` may be rough
`` `` `` multiple morphology in a given culture
`` 25 - 37 deg C

Serologically and Biochemically distinct from
`` C. fetus venerealis
CAMPYLOBACTER fetus fetus

Pathogenisis
Cause of Abortion
`` sporadic in Cattle
`` outbreaks in sheep
`` usually last third of pregnancy

Growth stimulated by substance in
`` fetal cotyledons
`` ovine liver
`` ovine kidney

Sometimes delivery of weak lambs at term

Feces
`` fomites
`` `` Ingestion
`` `` `` Bacteremia
`` `` `` `` Gestational Uterus
`` `` `` `` `` Metritis / Placentitis
`` `` `` `` `` `` Late Abortion
CAMPYLOBACTER fetus fetus

Epidmiology
Environmental Transmission via Ingestion
`` NOT venereal

Survives
`` gall bladder of some sheep
`` feces of sheep
`` `` esp young animals
`` magpies transfer flock to flock
`` contaminated shepard boots
CAMPYLOBACTER fetus fetus

Diagnosis
Isolation of organism from fetus
`` stomach contents
`` lungs
`` placenta

Culture
`` aborted fetal stomach contents
`` `` usually pure culture
`` cotyledon
`` `` may be contaminats
`` cervical vaginal mucus
`` `` may be contaminated
`` hard to grow
`` `` requires transport medium
PCR
`` emerging

Doughnut Shaped Necrotic Foci
`` sometimes found on liver of fetus
`` indicative of infection in sheep
CAMPYLOBACTER fetus fetus

Immunity
Vaccination with formalin killed (bacterin)
`` protects against synchronous challenge
`` partially protects animals infected 1 month PREVIOUSLY

Abortion completely or almost completely prevented
CAMPYLOBACTER fetus fetus

Treatment and Control
Streptomycin Effective
`` may reduce number of abortions
`` `` must be used whole flock in face of outbreak

Oral treatment chlortetracycline effective

Isolate aborting ewes

Move pregnant ewes to clean areas
CAMPYLOBACTER fetus fetus

Zoonosis
May infect humans

Usually
`` infants
`` pregnant
`` elderly

Abortion

Brucellosis like disease

Septicemia
CAMPYLOBACTER jejuni

Morph and Cult
G- Slender Rods
`` 0.2 to 0.5 mm long
`` spiral appearance in longer forms
`` comma or SEAGULL shape in shorter forms

Culture
`` Microaerophilic
`` slow growth (2-5 days)
`` Translucent round colonies
`` `` often mucoid
`` `` up to 1 mm dia
`` `` `` multiple morphology in a given culture
`` 37 - 42 deg C
`` no growth at 25 deg C
CAMPYLOBACTER jejuni

Pathogenisis
Leading cause of diarrhea in humans
`` chickens and turkeys
`` `` 80 - 100% carriers

Diarrhea in
`` dogs
`` cats
`` calves
`` sheep
`` mink
`` lab animals
`` more severe in young animals

Hemorrhagic diarrhea often present in
`` dogs
`` cats
`` mink

Cattle
`` sproradic abortion outbreaks
`` mastitis

Sheep
`` abortion

Chicken
`` "vibrionic hepatitis" old reports
`` `` up to 35% decrease egg production
`` `` hemmorrhagic necrotic liver

Isolation from
`` normal pigs
`` `` intestinal contents and feces
`` normal cattle
`` `` gall bladder
`` `` milk
`` `` feces
`` normal dogs
`` `` feces
`` normal sheep
`` `` feces
`` normal monkeys
`` `` feces
`` pigeons and many other birds
`` `` feces

Note closely related C. upsaliensis
`` associated with diarrhea in dogs
`` isolated from asymptomatic dogs and cats
`` `` tf zoonotic risk
CAMPYLOBACTER jejuni

Epidemiology
World Wide Distribution

Oral infection
`` contaminated feed
`` water
`` hands in humans

Zoonotic Disease
CAMPYLOBACTER jejuni

Diagnosis
Culture from animals showing fever and diarrhea
`` feces
`` intestinal contents
`` special selective media
`` `` otherwise filter through 0.65 microm filter
`` `` `` blood agar

Direct smear
`` feces
`` 5 or more SEAGULLS per oil field
`` `` suggestive
CAMPYLOBACTER jejuni

Treatment
Erthromycin

Tetracycline

Chloramphenicol
`` useful in dogs
HELICOBACTER

Morph Cult
G-
`` spiral shaped

Culture
`` Microacrophilic
`` `` (5% CO2 5% H2 90% N2)
`` very fastidious
`` `` enriched (blood/serum)
`` `` selective (vancomycin, polymixin B, trimethoprim-sulfa)
`` 2 - 7 days @ 37 deg C
`` immediate culture from biopsy
HELICOBACTER

Habitat
Different Species
`` different host ranges
`` `` species specificity to 1 - 3 hosts
`` different primary sites
`` `` mainly GI
HELICOBACTER

Pathogenisis
Chronic Gastritis, gastroduodenal ulceration, adenocarcinoma, eteritis, hepatitis
`` humans
`` `` not all strains pathogenic
`` controversial dogs and cats
`` `` many causes
`` `` `` dietary, allergy, food intolerance etc

Clinical Signs
`` vomiting
`` melena
`` `` acute episodes gastric bleeding
`` weight loss
HELICOBACTER

Diagnosis
Clinical Signs
`` Vomiting
`` melena
`` Weight loss

Biopsy results
`` patchy distribution
`` `` tf use endoscope

Culture
`` very difficult

PCR
`` genus only

Common in healthy dogs and cats
`` could be variety of Helicobacter like organisms
`` varying pathogenicity

Dogs and cats with gastric enteritis
`` some respond to treatment for H. pylori
`` some do not

Urease Test
`` H. pylori produces high amount of urea
`` `` survival in stomach
HELICOBACTER

Zoonosis - 5
H. pylori

H. bizzozeronii

H. heilmannii

H. Canis

H. pullorum

Note low potential for zoonosis
`` human infections likely from environment
HELICOBACTER

Treatment
Eliminate all other causes of gastritis

Verify presence of Helicobacter

AM Combinations
`` amoxicillin or tetracycline
`` `` plus metronidazole
`` bismuth subslicylate and ranitidine
`` proton pump inhibitors
`` `` omeprazole

Long treatments
`` tf 2 AMs
`` `` avoid selection of resistant mutants
LAWSONIA intracellularis

Morph and Cult
Porcine Proliferative Enteropathy Complex

G-
`` curved or rod shaped

Culture
`` Microaerophilic
`` cell culture only
LAWSONIA intracellularis

Pathogenisis
Porcine Proliferative Enteropathy Complex

Includes
`` Porcine Intestinal Adenomatosis (PIA)
`` Necrotic Enteritis (NE)
`` Proliferative Hemmorrhagic Enteropathy (PHE)
`` thickening of mucosa of SI and LI
`` `` Enterocyte Proliferation

Clinically
`` PIA
`` `` anorexia and failure to sustain growth
`` `` No diarrhea
`` NE
`` `` persistent scours
`` `` `` no blood but mucus present
`` `` progressive wasting
`` PHE
`` `` sudden death
`` `` projectile bloody diarrhea
`` `` anemia
`` `` cases melena

Triggered by stress
LAWSONIA intracellularis

Epidemiology
World Wide Distribution

Non hemmorhagic presentation
`` often undetected clinically
`` lesions detected at slaughter
`` `` up to 28%

PIA and NE
`` mainly 6 - 20 weeks
`` common in purchased feeder pigs
`` clinical signs
`` `` 3 - 14 days after movement

PHE
`` mainly young adults
`` repopulated units and breeding stock

Other animal species may bring into high health herds
LAWSONIA intracellularis

Diagnosis
No effective method for PE in individual live pigs

Necropsy observation of lesions

Histo
`` intracellular organisms
`` `` acid fast stain
`` silver stain

PCR

Serology

Immunoflurescent AB

Immunohistochemistry

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