Glossary of Units 1-5 Psych MIDTERM07

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5 perspectives are..?
neuroscience, psychodynamic, behavioral, humanistic, cognitive
neuroscience perspective
for every behavior/action >>corresponding physical/chemical events that occur in the brain
psychodynamic perspective
unconscious forces effect on behavior, unconscious drives.. Freud
behavioral perspective
only study what's observable, behavior = responses to stimuli
humanistic perspective
whole person is important--including individual subjective experiences; ppl are naturally good, society ruins it..
cognitive perspective
"conocer" how we think/how we come to know, ie artificial intelligence
2 types of research
1. Basic: not sure, don't know what exactly is going to come out of it
2. Applied: purposeful, specific problem to solve
proffesion organization for psych ppl is?
APA: American Psychological Assosciation--posted info, psych community, regulations
3 types of research
1. Descriptive: describe the systematic observation +/or data collection ie case studies, surveys
2. Correlation: more focused>>find relationships (-1 0 +1) b/w variables -- statistics, NOT cause & effect
3. Experimental: most focused>> find connections b/w variables then manipulate--scientist actively controls the situation
theory vs hypothesis

operational definition
theory is an idea based fr...
hypothesis is testable
*"operational definition"=your procedure
lab vs field research
more control in lab vs more natural in field research
3 methods of psych measurement
self-reports: ppl document themselves, possibly misjudged/estimated
behavioral observation: observing/reading someone's behavior, assumptions made to connect actions w meaning
archival research: collecting/analyzing years of activity that's already occured, hence uninfluenced by presence of person
independent vs dependent variable
independent variable>>difference, or manipulated
dependent variable>>being measured
other scientific method important things
random sample, exp + control situations, random assignments, replication, generalizability
humans or animals
>>privacy, pain/discomfort, deception
-primarily descriptive research
-tests: sleep spindles (retarded fr birth?), mental tests high, word pairing/flashcards, ability to form relationships + progression *also David Rigler's wife--seeing if she could remember her past
-difficulties: ethics, lawsuit, loss of funding, don't know if she was retarded fr birth, forbidden experiment, research mixed w treatment
Miligram's experiment!
goal: compare obediance in Us to that of Germany--Hitler..
Setup: miligram in complete control of situation, manipulated place/complaints/ whether u could see him..
Data: measured obediance to authority according to what level volts the teacher would go to + observe their behav
*never went to Germany
who was Pavlov-- what did he do?
noticed dogs salivating b/f receiving actual food >> discovered classical conditioning >> gets dogs to salivate to a bell
the formation of a learned responses to a stimulus
if conditioned stimulus (CS) freq. occus w/o US >> its response-eliciting ability is lost
after conditioned to respond to one stiumulus, the CS is slightly tweaked but subj has same CR ie Little Albert
the ability to tell the difference b/w different stimuli
how to classically condition
US >> UR
NS >> nothing

US + NS >> UR

CS >> CR
biological preparedness
every animal is biologically prepared by evolution to learn some things better than others
cognitive representations
subject must learn one event signals the next >> there must b a reliable predictive relationship b/w CS + US
operant conditioning
trying to in/decrease behavior through reinforcement or punishment
+/- reinforcement/punishment
>>4 types of consequences
+ adding - subtracting/taking away
reinforcement: increase behavior
punishment: decrease behavior

*main principles of behaviorism
4 types of schedules of reinforcement
fixed: set vs. variable: average
ratio: # reps vs. interval: time

*fixed ratio=for every 2 As, $25
*variable ratio=avg of $25 for every 2 As
*fixed interval=every week of school, $25
*variable interval=every week of school, an average of $25
locus of control
internal: you control
external: destiny, fate
observational learning
when one learns by observing + modeling the behav of others ie Bobo doll study
"Little Brother Is Changing You"
>>different examples
Rosenberg working w kids @ Visalia (Jess) >> teach them to suck up to teachers reinforce their kind behav >> results: first more + less - behav, after 6 weeks students stopped behav + teacher's behav went extinct + dropped - increased
also... kids op cond parents, kids op cond other kids (Peggy to make friends)...
*client can't know about the technique
operational condictioning!!
ie training pidgeons, air crib for his baby Deborah, teaching machine
neuroscience vs behavioralism
neuroscience: neuromarketing, mirror neurons, how the brain responds to advertizing, thought/feeling > corresponding phys/chem event in brain

behav: observational learning, imitating others+ seeing the conseqs of their behav, classical cond
Divisions of nervous system
central (location): spinal cord + brain
peripheral (function): autonomic + somatic

autonomic: parasympthatic + sympathetic

autonomic (self-regulated actions of organs + glands): divided further into sympathetic--energizing and parasympathetic--calming

somatic (voluntary movemetns of skeletal muscles)
sensory neurons
neurons that send signals from the senses, skin, muscles, + internal organs to the CNS
motor neurons
neurons that transmit commands from the CNS to the muscles, glands, and organs
how the neuron functions
(use vocab)
signal passes through synapse to dendrites of the neuron through the axon (covered w myelin sheath insulator) to the axon terminals
next, once the neuron has reached its threshold (all or nothing law)>> action potential and goes from resting to firing
how synapses + neurotransmitters function (use vocab)
axon terminals have vesicles containing nuerotransmitters that must cross the synapse to receptor sites on the dendrites of the next neuron
*excitatory neurotransmitters>fits into the receptors + exites the next cell
*inhibitory neurotransmitters>blocks/inhibits the next cell fr firing, needed to control amount of firing
epilepsy/seizures involve uncontrollable firing in the brain, lack of inhib neurotr.s>> Jason given anticonulsant drugs to increase GABA to act as inhib.
naturally released when body experiences pain, really happy emotions, or prolonged exercise >> inhibitory neurotransmitters, stop pain messages making you feel like in a euphoria ~effects as morphine
brain research techniques
electrodes>>ie determine where seizures are occuring to remove it in surgery **electrodes record a sketch of the brain on paper--EEG
brain imaging>>ie MRI for 3D images, PET show diff areas light up during diff activities (split brain patients)
Brain stem (parts + functions)
Pons>sleep + arousal
Medulla>vital involuntary functions
(Reticular formation)
Cerebellum>motor coordination
Midbrain (parts + functions)
aka limbic system!!!
thalamus>sensory relay station
hypothalamus>regulates glands, autonomic NS
hippocampus>memory formation
(amygdala>fear, anger, agression)
Cerebral cortex
-each lobe + its cortexs/functions
4 lobes>>
Frontal lobe: motor cortex (motion), assosciation cortex (integrating info), Broca's area
Temporal lobe: auditory cortex (hearing), Wernicke's area
Parietal lobe: somatosensory cortex (feeling your body), assosciation cortex (depth)
Occipital lobe: visual cortex (vision)
Phineas Gage
-severing his frontal lobe + limbic system
>>no pain: perhaps endorphins blocked substance P from firing nerve cells
>>limbic firing messages + then uninhibited by frontal lobe
-not himself, weak on right side, affinity for animals
neural disorders
hydroencephelitis: "water brain swelling" ie Sharon + Nicole, same damage, diff effects>>plasticity

epilepsy: seizures, electrical storm, lack of inhib neurotransmitters--uncontrollable firing
Split-brain research
>>by seeing which parts light up during which activities>> determine diff specialties of each hemi of brain (aka celebral lateralization)

--severed corpus callosum
left brain
mostly language (reading, writing, speaking), sees parts, logic, math, analogies
-corr. w right hand + visual field
right brain
holistic, creative, visual-spatial, music, art, recognition of faces/emotions, drawing 3D objects
-corr. w left hand + vidual field
perceptual process
*ppl may percieve w/o awareness ie blindsight
*stimulus--acually seeing the light
haptic system
touch: senses:
perception of oneself
=pressure + equilibrium + kinesthesia

**kinesthesia= feeling stretching/contracting of muscles + tendons to determine position or load
visual pathway to brain
light enters eye through pupil + forms upside down backwards on the retina >>sent as a signal by optic nerve through the optic chaism >>to visual cortex where feature detectors recognize lines + movement >> then to parietal cotex to det. depth + relative location >> then to temporal lobe for identity >> then to frontal lobe for face recognition + short term memory
a condition due to damage to temporal lobes where a person has face recognition issues
>>still effected by faces, + moreso by familiar faces
a condition due to damage to visual cortex where a person encodes visual info w/o awareness
>>actually can see, just not aware
dreams=wish fullfillment
-manifest vs latent (uncons) content
-id: animal drives, ego: rational self, super ego: conscious
-driven by uncons drives

*opposite of Hobson + McCarly's activation synthesis theory
rods vs cones
*both found in retina
rods: b-w light
cones: color
rules of perception/vision
>>>know these!
perceptual organization: figure/ground + Gestalt rules of grouping (proximity, similarity, continuity, closure, common fate)

Perceptual constancy: size + shape

Depth + Demension: binocular depth cues (convergence, binocular disparity), monocular depth cues (relative size, texture gradient, linear perspective, interposition, atmos persp, relative elevation, familiarity)

Perceptual set
NEXT: study unit5 in detail
-then 3 sits for essay 1
-opinions for essays 2 + 3
goooooood luck

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