Glossary of Unit 1 Lecture Notes

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The study of organisms which must be seen with the aid or assistance of a microscope
The study of bacteria
The study of fungus (molds, yeast)
The study of parasites
The study of protozoans
The study of viruses
An invasion of the body by MO’s that will result in an abnormal state of health in which the body will not function properly; not inherited
Infectious diseases
The United Nations health organization
WHO (World Health Organization)
Estimated number of people that die each year from preventable infectious diseases
13 million
Invented 1st compound microscope. Year?
Zaccharias Janssen / 1590
Created and published Micrographie which included descriptions and drawings of things seen under the microscope. Year?
Robert Hooke / 1660-65
He studied cork and developed the word cell. Year?
Robert Hooke / 1660-65
Disagreed with spontaneous generation. Conducted the 1st documented experiment. Year?
Francisco Redi / 1668
Developed the 1st microscope. Studied the details of bacteria, algae, fungus, protozoans, any human body fluids. Year?
Anton van Leeuwenhoek / 1676
Considered to be the Father of Bacteriology and Protozoology. Year?
Anton van Leeuwenhoek / 1676
Coined the term animalcules.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek / 1676
Common thought around 1660; some forms of life developed from nonliving matter.
Spontaneous generation
Favored S.G. and did an experiment to prove S.G. He took broth, heated it and cooled it, and left it uncovered. Proved S.G. according to the standards of his experiment. Year?
John Needam / 1745
Tried to disprove S.G. He used broth, heated and cooled, and covered it but sealed it tight so no vital force. Since it had to have included vital force, no one believed his results since he eliminated the vital force. Year?
Lazzaro Spallanzi / 1776
Used cowpox to develop the first immunization against smallpox. Vaccina = cowpox. Vaccina was used to develop the word vaccination. Was a significant turning point. Year?
Edward Jenner / 1796
Considered the Golden Age of Microbiology because of scientific improvements.
1857 - 1910
Presented Theory of Biogenesis. Says you have to recognize that living things arise from living things. Year?
Rudolf Virchow / 1858
First thing Louis Pasteur received credit for. Year?
Developing the process of pasteurization. 1857 - 1861
Who disproved SG and how? Year?
Louis Pasteur did the broth thing, used S shaped tube to allow for vital force. Fly has trouble getting through maze and bacteria can’t swim up. Nothing grew so his process and equipment disproved S.G. 1857 - 1861
Who developed the Germ Theory of Disease? What is it? Year?
Louis Pasteur developed it but did not pursue it. Disease arises from MO's. Specific MO's cause specific infections. 1857 - 1861
Developed aseptic surgery. What two chemicals did he use? Year?
Joseph Lister
carbolic acid
What did Louis Pasteur develop that was important for a particular industry? Year?
He developed a vaccine for anthrax which was important for the cattle industry. / 1881
What did Robert Koch introduce in 1881?
Pure culture technique for handling bacteria in labs.
What were Koch's contributions in 1884?
He proved the Germ Theory of Disease. He developed postulates which stated that a disease from 1 source can be withdrawn, taken to a lab and grown in an animal.
What vaccine did Pasteur develop in 1885?
A vaccine for people with rabies.
Who is considered the Father of Chemotherapy?
Paul Ehrlich
Who developed salvarsan and what is it? Year?
Paul Ehrlich
A viable first medication for syphilis. Important because it targeted certain disease specifically.
Who developed penicillin, the first antibiotic. Year?
Alexander Fleming / 1929
What happened in the 1940's?
First view of viruses
What happened in 1953?
Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA.
Who developed the first Polio vaccine? Year?
Jonas Salk / 1954
What happened in 1990?
Vaccine developed for HiB - Hemophilus influenzae. Causes infantile meningitis type B. Became aware of it's DNA and knew how to revise it.
What happened in 1995?
Genome of HiB was mapped.
What happened in 2000?
First significant rough draft of human genome was mapped.
What is taxonomy?
A formal system for organizing, classifying, and naming living things.
What is nomenclature?
The process of assigning names.
Scientific names use what?
Binomial nomenclature
Who originated taxonomy and when?
Carl Linnaeus in 1735.
What is classification?
An orderly arrangement of organisms into groups.
What is the classification system?
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
What is binomial nomenclature and how is it written?
Genus and species. Genus is capitalized and underlined (italicized in books). Species is underlined.
What is identification?
A process of recording the characteristics of an organism; looking at traits, genotype, phenotype.
What are Whittaker's 5 kingdom classifications?
1. Monera aka procaryotae
2. Protista
3. Fungi aka mycetae
4. Plantae
5. Animalia
What is a phylogenetic tree?
Start with simple organisms and move into more complex organisms.
What is the Woese-Fox Classification system?
1. Eukarya
2. Archaea
3. Bacteria
What is used to develop the Woese-Fox classification system?
rRNA - ribosomal ribonucleic acid
What are 4 characteristics of the Bright Field microscope?
•Uses visible light
•Simple to use
•Stain specimens
•Max 1000 power magnification
What are 4 characteristics of Dark Field microscopes?
•Dark background
•Lighted specimen
•No staining needed
•Living organisms on slide
What are 4 characteristics of Phase-Contrast microscopes?
•Use diffraction plates (phase light in or out)
•No staining
•Contrast light, move light out of and into phase
•Specimens are alive
What are 2 characteristics of Fluorescence microscopes?
•Fluorochrome stain - Fluorescent dyes used
•Not all bacteria will absorb fluorochrome stain (can’t see every type of MO that you want to see)
What are 3 characteristics of Electron microscopes?
•Uses electrons – not visible light
•Stained with heavy metals
•Use magnets
What is TEM?
transmission electron micrograph
1,000,000 x magnification
Uses thin slices, looking at the internal through slices
What is SEM?
scanning electron micrograph
100,000 x magnification
Scanning surface, looking at whole object, 3D, intact not layers
What is resolving power?
(resolution) – the ability of the lens to distinguish fine detail ex: headlights
What is refractive index (RI)?
the amount the light bends. The RI of glass is identical to RI of immersion oil
What is morphology?
What are the 4 main shapes?
spherical (cocci/coccus)
rod (bacilli)
pleomorphic (slight change in true shape)

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