Glossary of Understanding Medical Surgical Nursing Ch 45

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produces myelin sheath to electrically insulate CNS neurons
capable of movement & phagocytosis of pathogens & damaged tissue
contributes to blood-brain barrier
line ventricles of brain

many of cells are ciliated

involved in circulation of cerebrospinal fluid
sensory (afferent) neuron
transmits impulses from receptors to CNS
motor (efferent) neuron
transmits impulses from CNS to effectors (muscles & glands)

"A before E: You have to feel or sense (afferent) a stimulus before you an take action (efferent)"
nerve impulse
AKA action potential

electrical change caused by movement of ions across neuron cell membrane
reflex arc
pathway nerve impulses travel when a reflex is elicited

1) RECEPTORS detect stimulus & generate impulse
2) SENSORY NEURONS transmit impulses from receptors -> CNS
3) THE CNS contains one+ synapses & interneurons (may be part of pathway)
4) MOTOR NEURONS transmit impulses from CNS -> effector
5) EFFECTOR performs action
The parts of the brain include . . . (seven listed)
1) medulla: vital function regulation - cough/sneeze/swallow/vomit reflex ctrs
2) pons: respiratory ctrs
3) midbrain: reflex ctr - balance
4) cerebellum: coordination - muscle tone - posture/balance
5) hypothalamus: produce several hormones - regulate food intake - stimulate visceral responses when emotional
6) thalamus: sensory pathways (except olfactory)
7) cerebrum: impulses for voluntary movement - sensations interpretation - hearing/smell/taste - learning - memory
There are _____ pair of cranial nerves.
The _____ nervous system is dominant in stressful situations.
The two neurotransmitters of the sympathetic division are . . .
1) acetylcholine

2) norepinephrine
The _____ nervous system dominates during relaxed, nonstressful situations to promote normal functioning of several organ systems.
The neurotransmitter for all parasympathetic synapses is _____?
The twelve cranial nerves are . . .
I Olfactory
II Optic
III Oculomotor
IV Trochlear
V Trigeminal
VI Abducens
VII Facial
VIII Vestibulocochlear
IX Glossopharyngeal
X Vagus
XI Accessory
XII Hypoglossal
A basic neurological assessment includes what five steps?
1) Assess LOC & orientation
2) Get VS
3) Check pupillary response to light
4) Assess strength/equality of hand grip & movement of extremities
5) Determine ability to sense touch/pain in extremities
expressive aphasia
pt knows what they want to say but unable to say it coherently
decerebrate posturing
abnormal extension posturing

feet plantar flexed - wrists/fingers flexed - forearms pronated - elbows extended - arms adducted
unequal pupil dilation
involuntary movement of eyes
Mnemonic for remebering cranial nerves:

O h
O nce
O ne
T akes
T he
A natomy
F inal
G ood
V acation
S eems
H eavenly
O lfactory
O ptic
O culomotor
T rochlear
T rigeminal
A bducens
F acial
A coustic
G lossopharyngeal
V agal
S pinal accessory
H ypoglossal
Babinski's reflex
neurological test

sole of foot stroked - flexion of great toe expected in anyone over age 6 months

if great toe extends & other toes fan out, neurological dysfunction suspected if pt >6 months
lumbar puncture
cerebrospinal fluid obtained & evaluated for . . .
~ elevated glucose or protein
~ bacteria or WBC presence
~ immunoglobulin levels
~ culture & sensitivity
electroencephalogram (EEG)
noninvasive test done to evaluate electrical activity of brain
permanent muscle contractions w/fibrosis of connective tissue that occur from lack of muscle use

cause permanent deformities & prevent normal function
difficulty speaking
Which of the following are neurons that carry impulses from the CNS to effectors?
a. Mixed
b. Motor
c. Afferent
d. Sensory
b. Motor
Which of the following is a symptom of increasing intracranial pressure?
a. Constricted pupils
b. Decreasing LOC
c. Narrowing pulse pressure
d. Bradypnea
b. Decreasing LOC
Which of the following actions by the nurse is the best way to determine if a patient with expressive aphasia is oriented?
a. Ask yes-or-no questions.
b. Ask the patient to name the family member in the room.
c. Ask the patient who the cur
a. Ask yes-or-no questions.
Asking the patient to stick out his or her tongue evaluates the function of which cranial nerve?
a. IV-trochlear
b. V-trigeminal
c. IX-glossopharyngeal
d. XII-hypoglossal
d. XII-hypoglossal
Which of the following nursing interventions can prevent footdrop?
a. Positioning the patient in the left lateral position
b. Providing daily foot massage
c. Using high-top tennis shoes
d. Maintaining an upright position as much as po
c. Using high-top tennis shoes
Which of the following activities should be encouraged when a patient returns from a CT scan using a contrast medium?
a. Ambulation
b. Drinking fluids
c. Turning side to side
d. Coughing and deep breathing
b. Drinking fluids
When observing a patient's gait, the nurse is checking the integrity of what?
a. Cerebellum
b. Brainstem
c. Diencephalon
d. Cerebrum
a. Cerebellum
Which of the following areas of the brain controls speech?
a. Left occipital lobe
b. Broca's area
c. Midbrain
d. Brainstem
b. Broca's area

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