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Glossary of USMLE Anatomy, Embryology, Neuroanatomy, Histology

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What gland is found in the muscular triangle of the neck?
Thyroid gland
Is an afferent or efferent pupillary defect described as B/L pupillary constriction when light is shined in the unaffected eye and B/L paradoxical dilation when light is shined in the affected eye?
Afferent pupillary defect (CN II lesion); in an efferent pupillary defect (CN III), B/L constrict when light is shined in the unaffected eye and consentual pupil constriction occurs when light is shined in the affected eye.
What is the name of the spinal cord passing within the subarachnoid space and forming the spinal nerves that exit the lumbar and sacral foramina?
Cauda equina
Name the laryngeal muscle described by the following:
• Pulls the arytenoids cartilages closer to the thyroid, relaxing the vocal ligaments and thereby decreasing the pitch
Thyroarytenoid muscles
Name the laryngeal muscle described by the following:
• Tenses the vocal ligaments, increasing the distance between the cartilages, thereby increasing the pitch
Cricothyroid muscles
Name the laryngeal muscle described by the following:
• Adducts the vocal ligaments, closes the air passageway during swallowing, and allows phonation
Lateral cricoarytenoid muscles
Name the laryngeal muscle described by the following:
• Only muscle to abduct the vocal cords
Posterior cricoarytenoid muscles
Where does the parotid (Stensen's) duct enter the oral cavity?
Opposite the second upper molar tooth
From what aortic arch are the following structures derived?
• Common and internal carotid arteries
Third aortic arch

MS CARD is my mnemonic for the aortic arch derivatives
From what aortic arch are the following structures derived?
• Degenerates
Fifth

MS CARD is my mnemonic for the aortic arch derivatives
From what aortic arch are the following structures derived?
• Stapes artery
Second

MS CARD is my mnemonic for the aortic arch derivatives
From what aortic arch are the following structures derived?
• Maxillary artery
First

MS CARD is my mnemonic for the aortic arch derivatives
From what aortic arch are the following structures derived?
• Arch of the aorta and right subclavian artery
Fourth

MS CARD is my mnemonic for the aortic arch derivatives
From what aortic arch are the following structures derived?
• Right and left pulmonary arteries and the ductus arteriosus
Sixth

MS CARD is my mnemonic for the aortic arch derivatives
What abdominal muscle contributes to the anterior layer of the rectus sheath, forms the inguinal ligament, and in men gives rise to the external spermatic fascia of the spermatic cord?
External abdominal oblique
Name the compartment of the lower extremity and the nerve based on its movements.
• Adduct the thigh and flex the hip
Medial compartment of the thigh, obturator nerve
Name the compartment of the lower extremity and the nerve based on its movements.
• Plantar flex the foot, flex the toes, and invert the foot
Posterior compartment of the leg, tibial nerve
Name the compartment of the lower extremity and the nerve based on its movements.
• Dorsiflex the foot, extend the toes, and invert the foot
Anterior compartment of the leg, deep peroneal nerve
Name the compartment of the lower extremity and the nerve based on its movements.
• Flex the hip and extend the knee
Anterior compartment of the thigh, femoral nerve
Name the compartment of the lower extremity and the nerve based on its movements.
• Extend the hip and flex the knee
Posterior compartment of the thigh, tibial nerve
Name the compartment of the lower extremity and the nerve based on its movements.
• Plantar flex the foot and evert the foot
Lateral compartment of the leg, superficial peroneal nerve
What are the five branches of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus?
STARS

1. Upper Subscapularis
2. Thoracodorsal
3. Axillary
4. Radial
5. Lower Subscapularis
Name the correct artery.
• The right recurrent laryngeal nerve passes around it.
Right brachiocephalic artery
Name the correct artery.
• The left recurrent laryngeal nerve passes around it.
Arch of the aorta
The inferior mesenteric vein drains into it.
The splenic vein
Are the quadrate and caudate lobes of the liver functionally part of the left or right lobe?
Functionally they are part of the left lobe of the liver because they receive their blood supply from the left hepatic artery. Anatomically they are considered part of the right lobe of the liver.
What bones make up the acetabulum?
Pubis, ilium, and ischium
What is the anatomic positioning of the right and left gastric nerve plexus of the esophagus as they pass through the diaphragm?
LARP: Left goes Anterior and Right goes Posterior (because of the rotation of the gut; remember your embryology!)
What vessel is lacerated in an epidural hematoma?
Middle meningeal artery
True or false? Below the arcuate line, all the aponeurotic fibers run anterior to the rectus abdominis.
True
What ocular muscle
• Adducts the eyeball and is involved in horizontal conjugate gaze?
Medial rectus (CN III)

(LR6 SO4)3
What ocular muscle
• Elevates and adducts the eyeball?
Superior rectus (CN III)

(LR6 SO4)3
What ocular muscle
• Depresses and abducts the eyeball?
Superior Oblique (CN IV)

(LR6 SO4)3
What ocular muscle
• Elevates and abducts the eyeball?
Inferior Oblique (CN III)

(LR6 SO4)3
What ocular muscle
• Abducts the eyeball and is involved in horizontal conjugate gaze?
Lateral rectus (CN VI)

(LR6 SO4)3
What ocular muscle
• Depresses and adducts the eyeball?
Inferior rectus (CN III)

(LR6 SO4)3
Which muscles of the eye are under parasympathetic control?
Constrictor pupillae and ciliary muscles
Which direction does the uvula deviate in a left vagus nerve lesion?
A left CN X lesion results in the uvula deviating to the right. (Uvula points away from the affected side.)
Is a subdural hematoma an arterial or venous bleed?
Subdural hematoma is a rupture of the cerebral veins where they enter the superior sagittal sinus.
Which CNs are found in the midline of the brainstem?
CN I, II, III, VI, and XII

Add 1 + 1 = 2, 1 + 2 = 3, 1 + 2 + 3 = 6, 1 + 2 + 3 + 6 = 12
What muscles insert in or on the intertubercular groove of the humerus?
"Lady between two Majors": latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, and teres major
What nerve supplies taste sensation to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue?
Chorda tympani of CN VII
What part of the heart forms
• The right border?
Right atrium
What part of the heart forms
• Left border?
Left ventricle and auricle of left atrium
What part of the heart forms
• Apex?
Tip of the left ventricle
What part of the heart forms
• Base?
Left atrium and tip of the right atrium
What part of the heart forms
• Superior border?
Conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and right and left auricles
What part of the heart forms
• Anterior wall?
Right ventricle
What part of the heart forms
• Posterior wall?
Left atrium
What part of the heart forms
• Diaphragmatic wall?
Left ventricle and tip of right ventricle
What nerves carry the sensory and motor components of the blink reflex?
CN V1 carries the sensory and CN VII carries the motor component of the blink reflex.
What muscle keeps the stapes taut against the oval window?
Stapedius muscle
Name the components of the femoral canal, working laterally to medially.
NAVEL: Femoral Nerve, Artery, Vein, Empty space, and Lymphatics/Lacunar ligament
What muscle is most superior in the orbit?
Levator palpebrae superioris
What portion of the pericardium adheres to the tunica adventitia of the great vessels?
Fibrous pericardium
What two veins form the portal vein?
The superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein (after it receives the inferior mesenteric vein) join to form the portal vein.
What CNs are responsible for the sensor and motor components of the light reflex?
CN II is the sensory limb and CN III is the motor component through parasympathetic stimulation.
Arrange the following layers in the correct sequence through which a needle must pass in a lumbar puncture.

• Skin
• Subarachnoid space
• Interspinous ligament
• Dura mater
• Deep fascia
• Epidural spa
During a lumbar puncture the needle passes through the interlaminar space in the midline of L3–L4, with the tip of the iliac crest in the flexed position as the landmark.

Order of puncture:

1. Skin
2. Superficial fascia
3. Deep fascia
4. Supraspinous ligament
5. Interspinous ligament
6. Interlaminar space
7. Epidural space
8. Dura mater
9. Arachnoid mater
10. Subarachnoid space.


(They ask this in some variation every year, so know it.)
What ocular ganglion is affected if the pupil on the affected side sluggishly responds to light with normal accommodation?
Ciliary ganglion producing a tonic pupil
What is the name for the most prominent spinous process?
Vertebra prominens (C7 in 70% of cases, C6 in 20%, T1 in 10%)
What muscles make up the rotator cuff?
SITS—Subscapularis, Infraspinatus, Teres minor, Supraspinatus
What is the function of white rami communicantes?
They are preganglionic sympathetic axons. They are white because they are myelinated.
What muscle or muscles are innervated by the following nerves?
• Suprascapular nerve
Supraspinatus and infraspinatus
What muscle or muscles are innervated by the following nerves?
• Upper subscapularis nerve
Subscapularis
What muscle or muscles are innervated by the following nerves?
• Thoracodorsal nerve
Latissimus dorsi
What muscle or muscles are innervated by the following nerves?
• Long thoracic nerve
Serratus anterior
What nerve is associated with the following functions?
• Flex the wrist and digits, pronate the wrist and the LOAF (Lumbricales, Opponens pollicis, Abductor pollicis brevis, Flexor pollicis brevis) muscles of the hand
Median nerve
What nerve is associated with the following functions?
• Flex the shoulder, flex the elbow, and supinate the elbow
Musculocutaneous nerve
What nerve is associated with the following functions?
• Innervation of the flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digiti profundus (pinky and ring fingers), and the intrinsic muscles of the hand
Ulnar nerve
What nerve is associated with the following functions?
• Supinate the wrist, extend the wrist and digits, extend the shoulder and elbow
Radial nerve
What abdominal muscle runs horizontally, contributes to the posterior rectus sheath, and contributes to form the conjoint tendon?
Transverse abdominis
Which CNs act as the sensory and motor components of the gag reflex?
The sensory limb is via CN IX, and the motor limb is from CN X.
Which kidney is lower? Why?
The right kidney is lower in the abdominal cavity because of the amount of space the liver occupies.
What two regions of the vertebral column are considered primary curvatures?
Thoracic and sacral
What vein drains the lower third of the thoracic wall?
Hemiazygous vein
At what point does the axillary artery become the brachial artery?
When it crosses the teres major
What direction would the tongue protrude in a left CN XII lesion?
Left CN XII lesion would result in the tongue pointing to the left (points at the affected side).
At what vertebral level does the common carotid artery bifurcate?
C4 (the upper border of the thyroid cartilage)
True or false? Males are more likely to develop femoral hernias than females.
False. Females are more likely to develop femoral hernias then males (remember Female's Femoral).
In what compartment of the thigh is the profundus femoris artery found?
Anterior compartment (it's the blood supply to the posterior compartment)
Where is the cupola of the lung in relation to the subclavian artery and vein?
The cupola of the lung is posterior to the subclavian artery and vein. It is the reason one must be cautious when performing subclavian venipuncture.
True or false? The first cervical vertebra has no vertebral body.
True. The odontoid process of C2 acts as the vertebral body of C1 allowing lateral rotation of the head.
What is the largest muscle in the body?
Gluteus maximus
At what vertebral levels does the aortic arch begin and end?
It both begins and ends at T4 (sternal angle [of Louis]).
What artery travels with the following veins?
• Great cardiac vein
Left anterior descending artery
What artery travels with the following veins?
• Middle cardiac vein
Posterior interventricular artery
What artery travels with the following veins?
• Small cardiac vein
Right coronary artery
The ophthalmic artery is a branch of what vessel?
Internal carotid artery
What structure or structures cross the diaphragm at
• T8 level?
IVC

Remember: 1 at T8, 2 at T10, and 3 at T12
What structure or structures cross the diaphragm at
• T10 level?
Esophagus and esophageal nerve plexus (CN X)

Remember: 1 at T8, 2 at T10, and 3 at T12
What structure or structures cross the diaphragm at
• T12 level?
Aorta, azygos vein, and thoracic duct

Remember: 1 at T8, 2 at T10, and 3 at T12
Is the carotid sinus sensitive to pressure or oxygen?
The carotid sinus is a pressure-sensitive (low) receptor, while the carotid body is an oxygen-sensitive (low) receptor. (Remember "Sinus Pressure").
What nerve or nerves supply general sensation and taste to the posterior third of the tongue?
CN IX and X
Which muscle of the eye is under sympathetic control?
Dilator pupillae muscle
True or false? both the left and right lungs have an oblique fissure?
True. on the right lung the oblique fissure divides the middle from the inferior lobe and the horizontal fissure further divides the middle from the upper lobe. On the left the oblique divides the superior from the inferior lobe.
What are the three branches of the lateral cord of the brachial plexus?
1. Lateral pectoral
2. Lateral head of the median
3. Musculocutaneus
What is the major difference between the veins in the face and the veins in the rest of the body?
There are no valves and no smooth muscle in the walls of the veins in the face.
Name the bony articulations of the following sites. Be specific.
• Shoulder
Clavicle, acromion, and glenoid fossa of the scapula and the humerus
Name the bony articulations of the following sites. Be specific.
• Elbow
Humerus with ulna (major) and radius (minor)
Name the bony articulations of the following sites. Be specific.
• Wrist
Radius with scaphoid and lunate and ulna with triquetrum and pisiform (Remember, for major articulations, wrist/radius and humerus/ulna = elbow)
What is the only laryngeal muscle innervated by the external laryngeal nerve?
Cricothyroid muscle; all other laryngeal muscles are innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve.
What seven structures are found in more than one mediastinum?
Esophagus, SVC, vagus nerve, azygos vein, thoracic duct, thymus, and phrenic nerve
How many bronchopulmonary segments are on the right lung? Left lung?
There are 10 bronchopulmonary segments on the right and 8 on the left.
The duodenal–jejunal flexure is suspended from the posterior abdominal wall by what?
Ligament of Treitz
What is the only tongue muscle innervated by CN X?
Palatoglossus muscle is innervated by CN X; all other tongue muscles are innervated by CN XII.
What abdominal muscle runs in a posteroinferior direction, splits to contribute to the rectus sheath, contributes to the formation of the conjoint tendon, and in men gives rise to the middle spermatic fascia and the cremasteric muscle of the spermatic co
Internal abdominal oblique
What are the five branches of the superior mesenteric artery?
Inferior pancreaticoduodenal, middle colic, right colic, ileocolic, and 10 to 15 intestinal arteries
What spinal nerves contribute to the pelvic splanchnic (parasympathetic) nerves that innervate the detrusor muscle of the urinary bladder?
S2, S3, S4—keeps the pee-pee off the floor!
What connects the third and the fourth ventricles?
Cerebral aqueduct
What nerve and artery could be affected in a humeral neck fracture?
Axillary nerve and posterior humeral artery
What type of hernia is described as passing through the deep lateral ring of the inguinal canal?
Indirect hernia passes in the inguinal canal; a direct hernia passes directly through Hesselbach's triangle.
What two vessels come together to form the external jugular vein?
1. Posterior auricular vein
2. Posterior division of the retromandibular vein
What is the only vein in the body with a high O2 content?
The pulmonary vein, which carries oxygenated blood from the lung to the left atrium.
What are the three branches of the celiac trunk?
The left gastric, splenic, and common hepatic arteries
What region of the pharynx does the eustachian tube enter?
Nasopharynx
What is the only muscle of the soft palate that is innervated by CN V3?
The tensor veli palatine is innervated by the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve; all others are innervated by CN X.
How many pairs of spinal nerves exit from the spinal cord?
31 pairs
What artery turns into the dorsalis pedis when it crosses the extensor retinaculum?
Anterior tibial artery
What is the term for pupils that react normally to accommodation but have bilateral loss of constriction in response to light?
Argyll Robertson pupils
What connects the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle?
Foramen of Monro
What nerve supplies general sensation to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue?
Lingual nerve of CN V3
What type of pleura is adherent to the surface of the organ?
Visceral pleura
What artery supplies the left ventricle, left atrium, and interventricular septum?
Left coronary artery
Where are the tonsillar tissues?
Waldeyer's ring
What is the name of the superficial subcutaneous fascia of the abdomen containing fat?
Camper's fascia; Scarpa's fascia is devoid of fat. (Remember campers are fat.)
What are the three anatomic characteristics that differentiate the large bowel from the small bowel and the rectum?
1. Tinea coli
2. Haustra
3. Epiploic appendages
What area of the posterior aspect of the eye has no photoreceptors?
The optic disk is the blind spot.
At the level of rib 6, the internal thoracic artery divides into what two arteries?
Musculophrenic and superior epigastric arteries
What is the name of inflammation of the prepatellar bursa?
Housemaid's knee
What nerve roots constitute the cervical plexus?
C1 through C4
Name the compartment of the mediastinum associated with the following thoracic structures:
• Heart and pericardium
Middle
Name the compartment of the mediastinum associated with the following thoracic structures:
• Descending aorta
Posterior
Name the compartment of the mediastinum associated with the following thoracic structures:
• Thymus
Superior and anterior
Name the compartment of the mediastinum associated with the following thoracic structures:
• Phrenic nerve
Superior and middle
Name the compartment of the mediastinum associated with the following thoracic structures:
• Esophagus
Superior and posterior
Name the compartment of the mediastinum associated with the following thoracic structures:
• Trachea
Superior
Name the compartment of the mediastinum associated with the following thoracic structures:
• Ascending aorta
Middle
Name the compartment of the mediastinum associated with the following thoracic structures:
• Thoracic duct
Superior and posterior
Name the compartment of the mediastinum associated with the following thoracic structures:
• Azygos vein
Superior and posterior
Name the compartment of the mediastinum associated with the following thoracic structures:
• SVC
Superior and middle
Name the compartment of the mediastinum associated with the following thoracic structures:
• Splanchnic nerves
Posterior
Name the compartment of the mediastinum associated with the following thoracic structures:
• Aortic arch
Superior
Name the compartment of the mediastinum associated with the following thoracic structures:
• IVC
Middle
Name the compartment of the mediastinum associated with the following thoracic structures:
• Vagus nerve
Posterior
Name the compartment of the mediastinum associated with the following thoracic structures:
• Brachiocephalic vein
Superior
Name the compartment of the mediastinum associated with the following thoracic structures:
• Pulmonary artery and veins
Middle
Name the compartment of the mediastinum associated with the following thoracic structures:
• Left common carotid artery
Superior
Name the compartment of the mediastinum associated with the following thoracic structures:
• Left subclavian artery
Superior
What is the only organ in the body supplied by preganglionic sympathetic fibers?
Adrenal medulla
The left subclavian artery is a branch of what artery?
The left is a branch of the aortic arch, while the right is a branch of the brachiocephalic trunk.
What are the four muscles of mastication?
1. Masseter
2. Temporalis
3. Medial pterygoid
4. Lateral pterygoid
With what thoracic vertebra or vertebrae does rib 7 articulate?
Rib 7 articulates with T7 and T8. Each rib articulates with the corresponding numerical vertebral body and the vertebral body below it.
What are the three branches of the inferior mesenteric artery?
Left colic, superior rectal, and sigmoidal arteries
What is the only valve in the heart with two cusps?
Mitral (bicuspid) valve
What are five clinical signs of portal HTN?
Caput medusa, internal hemorrhoids, esophageal varices, retroperitoneal varices, and splenomegaly
What three muscles constitute the erector spinae?
1. Iliocostalis
2. Longissimus
3. Spinalis


("I Love Science" muscles)
What nerve is compromised in carpal tunnel syndrome?
Median nerve
What vascular injury may result from a supracondylar fracture of the femur?
The popliteal artery, the deepest structure in the popliteal fossa, risks injury in a supracondylar fracture of the femur.
What nerve and artery could be affected in a midshaft humeral fracture?
Radial nerve and the profunda brachii artery
Name the 10 retroperitoneal organs.
1. Duodenum (all but the first part)
2. Pancreas
3. Ascending Colon
4. Descending colon
5. Rectum
6. Supra renal glands (adrenals)
7. Kidneys
8. Ureters
9. Aorta
10. IVC


D CUPS DAKRI is the mnemonic, everything else is covered with peritoneum
Ventral rami of what cervical nerves constitute the phrenic nerve?
C3, C4, and C5 keep the diaphragm alive!
What is the region of the fallopian tube where fertilization most commonly occurs?
Ampulla
What foramen must be traversed for entry into the lesser peritoneal sac?
Foramen of Winslow
Name the structure that enters or exits the following foramina:
• Foramen magnum
CN XI, vertebral arteries
Name the structure that enters or exits the following foramina:
• Foramen spinosum
Middle meningeal artery
Name the structure that enters or exits the following foramina:
• Foramen rotundum
CN V2
Name the structure that enters or exits the following foramina:
• Foramen ovale
CN V3 and the lesser petrosal nerve
Name the structure that enters or exits the following foramina:
• Jugular foramen
CN IX, X, and XI; sigmoid sinus
Name the structure that enters or exits the following foramina:
• Carotid canal
Internal carotid artery and sympathetic plexus
Name the structure that enters or exits the following foramina:
• Stylomastoid foramen
CN VII
Name the structure that enters or exits the following foramina:
• Hypoglossal canal
CN XII
Name the structure that enters or exits the following foramina:
• Internal auditory meatus
CN VII and VIII
Name the structure that enters or exits the following foramina:
• Optic canal
CN II and ophthalmic artery
Name the structure that enters or exits the following foramina:
• Cribriform plate
CN I
What vessel can be found atop the scalene anterior?
Subclavian vein
What component of the corneal reflex is lost in a CN VII deficit?
Motor aspect
A motor lesion to the right CN V results in deviation of the jaw to which side?
A right CN V lesion results in weakened muscles of mastication, and the jaw deviates to the right.
What two arteries join to form the superficial and deep palmar arches of the hand?
Ulnar and radial arteries (ulnar is the main supplier)
What two ligaments of the uterus are remnants of the gubernaculum?
Round and ovarian ligaments
What segments of the lumbosacral plexus form the following nerves?
• Tibial nerve
L4 to S3

(L2 to L4, thigh; L4 to S3, leg)
What segments of the lumbosacral plexus form the following nerves?
• Common peroneal nerve
L4 to S3

(L2 to L4, thigh; L4 to S3, leg)
What segments of the lumbosacral plexus form the following nerves?
• Femoral nerve
L2 to L4

(L2 to L4, thigh; L4 to S3, leg)
What segments of the lumbosacral plexus form the following nerves?
• Obturator nerve
L2 to L4

(L2 to L4, thigh; L4 to S3, leg)
What three structures are in contact with the left colic flexure? With the right colic flexure?
Left: stomach, spleen, and left kidney;

right: liver, duodenum, and right kidney
What three muscles constitute the pes anserinus?
1. Sartorius
2. Gracilis
3. Semitendinous
What is the only pharyngeal muscle not innervated by CN X?
Stylopharyngeus muscle is innervated by CN IX; all other pharyngeal muscles are innervated by CN X.
What vessels carry deoxygenated blood into the lungs from the right ventricle?
The right and left pulmonary arteries, the only arteries that carry deoxygenated blood
Fracture of the fibular neck, resulting in foot drop, is an injury of what nerve?
Common peroneal nerve
What vein is formed by the union of the right and left brachiocephalic veins?
Superior vena cava
If inserting a needle to perform a pleural tap or insertion of a chest tube, do you use the inferior or the superior border of a rib as your landmark? Why?
The superior border of the inferior intercostal rib is your landmark for a pleural tap because along the inferior border of each rib is the neurovascular bundle, and you would risk injury if you went below the rib.
What muscle laterally rotates the femur to unlock the knee?
Popliteus
What chamber of the eye lies between the iris and the lens?
Posterior chamber
What artery supplies the right atrium, right ventricle, sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes?
Right coronary artery
What four branches of the brachial plexus arise prior to the first rib?
1. Dorsal scapular
2. Suprascapular
3. Long thoracic
4. Nerve to subclavius
What vertebral level is marked by the xiphoid process?
T9
What lower extremity nerve is described by the following motor loss?
• Loss of eversion; inversion, dorsiflexion, and plantarflexion of the foot
Common peroneal nerve
What lower extremity nerve is described by the following motor loss?
• Loss of flexion of the knees and toes, plantarflexion, and weakened inversion
Tibial nerve
What lower extremity nerve is described by the following motor loss?
• Loss of knee extension, weakened hip flexion
Femoral nerve
What lower extremity nerve is described by the following motor loss?
• Loss of abduction of the hip resulting in Trendelenburg gait
Superior gluteal nerve
What lower extremity nerve is described by the following motor loss?
• Loss of flexion of the knee and all function below the knee, weakened extension of the thigh
Sciatic nerve
What lower extremity nerve is described by the following motor loss?
• Loss of adduction of the thigh
Obturator nerve
What nerve lesion presents with ape or simian hand as its sign?
Median nerve lesion
What muscle acts in all ranges of motion of the arm?
Deltoid
What is the first branch of the abdominal aortic artery?
Inferior phrenic artery
What vessel does the right gonadal vein drain into?
The right gonadal vein drains into the inferior vena cava directly, and the left gonadal vein drains into the left renal vein.
What two muscles do you test to see whether CN XI is intact?
Trapezius and sternocleidomastoid
What two CNs are responsible for the carotid body and sinus reflexes?
CN IX and X
At what vertebral level does the trachea bifurcate?
T4 vertebral level posteriorly and anteriorly at the sternal angle (angle of Louis).
What is the function of the arachnoid granulations?
Resorb CSF into the blood
Damage to what nerve will give you winged scapula?
Long thoracic nerve. To avoid confusing long thoracic nerve and lateral thoracic artery: long has an n for nerve; lateral has an a for artery.
What portion of the intervertebral disk is a remnant of the notochord?
Nucleus pulposus
What component of the pelvic diaphragm forms the rectal sling (muscle of continence)?
Puborectalis
What are the five branches of the median cord of the brachial plexus?
Four Ms and a U

1. Median
2. Medial antebrachial
3. Medial pectoral
4. Medial brachial cutaneus
5. Ulnar
What bone houses the ulnar groove?
Humerus (between the medial epicondyle and the trochlea)
What CN is associated with the sensory innervation of
• Nasopharynx?
Maxillary division of CN V and glossopharyngeal nerves
What CN is associated with the sensory innervation of
• Oropharynx?
Glossopharyngeal nerve
What CN is associated with the sensory innervation of
• Laryngopharynx?
Vagus nerve
What protective covering adheres to the spinal cord and CNS tissue?
Pia mater
What is the name of the urinary bladder where the ureters enter and the urethra exits?
Urinary trigone
What is the term when the brachial artery is compressed, resulting in ischemic contracture of the hand?
Volkmann's contracture
What attaches the cusps of the valves to the papillary muscles in the heart?
Chordae tendineae
What is the lymphatic drainage of the pelvic organs?
Internal iliac nodes
What bursa is inflamed in clergyman's knee?
Infrapatellar bursa
What muscle is the chief flexor of the hip?
Psoas major
What component of the ANS, when stimulated, results in bronchoconstriction?
Parasympathetic stimulation, via the vagus nerve, results in bronchoconstriction, whereas sympathetic stimulation results in bronchodilation.
What muscles in the hand adduct the fingers?
The Palmar interosseus ADducts, whereas the Dorsal interosseus ABducts (PAD and DAB)
What type of cerebral bleed is due to a rupture of a berry aneurysm in the circle of Willis?
Subarachnoid hematoma
What are the five terminal branches of the facial nerve?
1. Temporal
2. Zygomatic
3. Buccal
4. Mandibular
5. Cervical


(Two Zebras Bit My Clavicle.)
What structure of the knee is described thus?
• C-shaped shock absorber; aids in attachment of the tibia to the femur via the medial collateral ligament
Medial meniscus
What structure of the knee is described thus?
• Prevents posterior displacement and has medial-to-lateral attachment on the tibia
Posterior cruciate ligament
What structure of the knee is described thus?
• Prevents adduction
Lateral collateral ligament
What structure of the knee is described thus?
• Prevents anterior displacement and has lateral-to-medial attachment on the tibia
ACL
What structure of the knee is described thus?
• Prevents abduction
Medial collateral ligament
What branches of CN X are the sensory and motor components of the cough reflex? Be specific.
The sensory component is through the superior laryngeal nerve, and the motor limb is via the recurrent laryngeal nerve.
What nerves provide sensory innervation above the vocal cords? Below the vocal cords?
The internal laryngeal nerve supplies sensory information from above the vocal cords while the recurrent laryngeal nerve supplies sensory information below.
From what pharyngeal groove is the external auditory meatus derived?
First pharyngeal groove; all others degenerate.
What embryonic structure forms the following adult male structures?
• Corpus cavernosus, corpus spongiosum, and glans and body of the penis
Phallus
What embryonic structure forms the adult male structure?
• Scrotum
Labioscrotal swelling
What embryonic structure forms the adult male structure?
• Urinary bladder, urethra, prostate gland, bulbourethral gland
Urogenital sinus
What embryonic structure forms the adult male structure?
• Testes, seminiferous tubules, and rete testes
Gonads
What embryonic structure forms the adult male structure?
• Ventral part of the penis
Urogenital folds
What embryonic structure forms the adult male structure?
• Gubernaculum testes
Gubernaculum
What embryonic structure forms the adult male structure?
• Epididymis, ductus deferens, seminal vesicle, and ejaculatory duct
Mesonephric duct
Which PG is associated with maintaining a PDA?
PGE and intrauterine or neonatal asphyxia maintain patency of the ductus arteriosus. Indomethacin, ACh, and catecholamines promote closure of the ductus arteriosus.
When does the primitive gut herniate out of the embryo?

When does it go back into the embryo?
6 weeks

10 weeks
What results when the palatine prominences fail to fuse with the other side?
Cleft palate
What is the term for a direct connection between the intestine and the external environment through the umbilicus because the vitelline duct persists?
Vitelline fistula
Where do the primordial germ cells arise?
From the wall of the yolk sac
What disorder is due to a 5--reductase deficiency, resulting in testicular tissue and stunted male external genitalia?
Male pseudo-intersexuality (hermaphrodite); these individuals are 46XY.
Does the zygote divide mitotically or meiotically?
The zygote divides mitotically; only germ cells divide meiotically.

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