Glossary of USMLE 1 Anatomy buzz
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- what structure is derived from the precordial plate?
- the mouth
- what is the only organ supplied by the foregut artery that is of mesodermal origin?
- in which direction and how far does the gut rotate?
- counterclockwise 270 degrees
- what structure connects the primative gut to the yolk sac?
- yolks stalk
- artery of the embryonic foregut?
- celiac artery
- when does the gut herniate out of the embryo?
when does it return?
- 6 weeks
- what can occur if the gut does not return to the embryo?
- - Omphalocele
- around what structure does the midgut rotate?
- superior mesenteric artery
- 3 things that cause the gonad to be a testis?
- - testis-determining factor from the Y chromosome
- MIF from sertoli cells
- Testosterone from leydig cells
- which neuropore opens first and closes last?
- when do the septum primum and septum secundum of the heart fuse?
- after birth
- what is the cerebral cortex a derivative of?
- what in embryo:
- umbilical vein
- what in embryo:
- ductus venosus
- what two structures are derived from the fourth aortic arch?
- - arch of the aorta
- right subclavian
- what structure is derived from the first aortic arch?
- maxillary artery
- what are the urinary bladder and the urethra derived from?
- urogenital sinus
- what are the pulmonary trunk and the ascending aorta derived from?
- truncus arteriosum
- what are the common and internal carotids derived from?
- third aortic arch
- what are the two derivatives of the sixth aortic arch?
- - pulmonary arteries
- ductus arteriosus
- what CN is associated with pharyngeal arch:
- - CN-5
- none-it degenerates
- what is the meckles diverticulum a derivative of?
- vitelline duct
- what is the thymus a derivative of?
- filament associated w/ what cell:
- - Desmin: Muscle
- Vimentin: Mesenchymal
- what are the 2 amino acids that cross-link elastin?
- - Desmosine
- substance in eosinophils that is toxic to parasitic worms?
- Major basic protein
- what muscle type has calmodulin?
- what is the area of mitotic activity in the GI?
- crypts of Lieberkulhun
- produces enamel of the teeth
- zone of the liver to be affected first by hypoxia
- centeral region
(around central vein)
- where do you first see clara cells in respiratory system?
- terminal bronchioles
- what is the chromosome number:
- G1 phase
- S phase
- G2 phase
- primary spermatocyte
- - 46 (2n)
- 46 (4n)
- 46 (4n)
- 46 (4n) to 46 (2n)
- 46 (4n)
- when is meiosis arrested first in the female eggs?
At what stage?
When do they begin tfrough the cycle again?
- in Utero
at: Meiosis I, Prophase I
begin again: at Puberty
- when is miosis arrested the second time in the female egg?
- at ovulation in Metaphase II
- part of the placenta derived from the mother?
- decidua basalis
- only nerve to come off the dorsal surface of the brain stem?
- type of fiber in the dorsal root?
- what tract do the pain and temp fibers run?
- what tract do the touch, pressure, vibration senses run?
- Dorsal column-medial lemniscus
- thalamic relay nucleus for the visual system?
- Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
- muscle of the eye responsible for accomodation
- if there is macular sparing w/ visual deficit, where is the lesion?
- occipital lobe
- motor relay of the thalamus
- Ventolateral Nucleus
- what is only cell type to leave the cerebellum?
- purkinje fibers
- if patient has right-sided cerebellar lesion, which way would he fall if he closed his eyes?
- to the right
- if patient presents w/ left nystagmus, where is the lesion?
- on right
(nystagmus is named for the fast component...fast component is to unaffected side)
- what fluid of inner ear has the same electrolyte content as the ECF?
- only cell in the cerebellum to have an excitatory NT?
- granule cell
- what does nystagmus look like if cold water is placed in the right ear?
- slow drift to right, fast to left
COWS= Cold Opposite Warm Same
(named for fast component)
- type of memory loss with hippocampal lesion?
- long-term memory
- name the tract of the dorsal columns that are for lower extremities
- function of the superior colliculi?
- Site relay to thalamus
(Superior = Site)
- if the corticobulbar tract for CN-7 and CN-12 were cut on the right,where would the deficit be?
- no deficit...
corticobubar tract receives bilateral input from these CN
- as the head moves, what casues the eyes to move in the opposite direction?
- vestibular system
- part of ear sensitive to angular acceleration and deceleration?
- semicircular canals
- what artery on the homunculus supplies blood to the trunk and lower extremities?
- anterior cerebral artery
- eye muscle under:
- sympathetic control
- parasymp control
- - symp: Dilator
(symp dilates eye)
- para: Sphinctor
(para constricts like a sphinctor)
- where is the lesion in Hemiballism?
- contralateral subthalamic nuclei
- what area of the brain is known for language comprehension?
- Wernicke's area
- what part of the cerebellum is affected by alcohol, causing the "drink walk" effect?
- spinal cord injury resulting in flaccid paralysis & muscle atrophy?
(bilateral anterior horn lesions)
- spinal cord lesion resulting in LMN & UMN problems?
- spinal cord lesion resulting in bilateral loss of pain and temp at the level of the lesion?
- most common circle of willis aneurysm, causing CN-3 palsy
- Posterior communicating artery
- at what level (anatomical landmark) is a lumbar puncture and a nerve block performed?
- Lumbar: Iliac crest
Nerve block: Ischial spine
- dermatome of the penis for sensation and erection
- S2, 3, 4 keeps the penis off the floor
- spinal cord lesion w/ bilateral dorsal column loss below level of lesion?
- part of the vertebral disk is from notochord?
- nucleus pulposus
- to what level does the spinal cord extend?
- L1 - L2
- muscle that initiates abduction of the arm?
- nerve compressed w/ carpal tunnel syndrome
- "foot drop" is caused by what nerve?
- common peroneal
- nerve damaged if pt cant adduct thigh?
- what does the right recurrent laryngeal nerve loop before ascending into the larynx?
- right subclavian
- at what spinal level does the esophagus originate?
- where does the right gonadal vein drain?
- inferior vena cava
- where does the left gonadal vein drain?
- left renal vein
- what is the portal triad?
- - common bile duct
- hepatic artery
- portal vein
- what are the only splanchnics in the body that carry preganglionic parasympathetic nerves?
- Pelvic splanchnics
- what muscles in the hand are innervated by the median nerve?
What are the other muscles innervated by?
- Opponens pollicis
- Abductor pollicis
- Flexor pollicis brevis
All other muscles: Ulnar nerve
- what muscles in the hand adduct & abducts the fingers?
- PAD & DAB:
- Palmar interosseus: ADducts
- Dorsal interosseus: ABducts
- 4 muscles of the rotator cuff
- "unhappy triad of the knee"
- - medial collateral ligament
- anterior crucite
- medial meniscus
- lymph drainage of pelvic organs (not gonads) to what nodes?
- internal iliac nodes
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