Glossary of Tumors and Cancers
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- What is hyperplasia?
- increased number of cells
- What is dysplasia?
- abnormall proliferation of cells w/loss of size, shape, and orientation
- What is metaplasia?
- 1 cell type is replaced by another adult cell type
- Which classification has more to do with prognosis?
- What criteria are used for staging?
- TMN, tumor size, metastases, node involvement
- invades and causes damage to cells in host; disrupts normal body function
- benign epithelial neoplasm, or a neoplasm derived from glands
- malignant neoplasm, derived from mesenchymal tissue
- malignant neoplasm derived from epithelial tissue
- carcinoma in which the lesion begins to grow in gland patterns
- consists of more than one germ layer;
not well differentiated=malignant
- benign; found in smooth muscle; often in uterine wall
- malignant lymphocytic neoplasm
- disorderly but non-neoplastic proliferation of cells
- mutated forms of DNA, which no longer effectively regulate cell replication
- properties of benign neoplasms
- well differentiated; usually progressive and slow growth; mitotic figures are rare and normal; do not invade surrounding tissue; no metastases occurs
- malignant neoplasms
- lack of cell differentiation w/ anaplasia; erratic growth; mitotic figures numerous and abnormal; locally invasive; metastatic into other areas
- 3 classes of hereditary forms of cancer
- 1)inherited cancer syndromes(autosomal dominant)
3)defective dna repair(autosomal recessive)
- tumor grade
- based on level of differentiation and the # of mitoses
- tumor stage
- more important for prognosis; based on size of lesion and extent of spread
- mononuclear inflammation is what type of response?
- acute response to intracellular parasite
- localized bacterial infect. of skin and subcutan. tissue; several openings discharging pus
- circumscribed pus-filled inflammation of skin and subcutaneous tissue often b/c of staph. infection
- major clinical consequences of atherosclerosis
- MI, cerebral infarction, aortic aneurysms, peripheral vascular disease, chronic ischemic heart disease
- unchangeable risk factors for heart disease (3)
- old age, male, genetics
- changeable risk factors
- hyperlipidemia, hypertension, smoking, diabetes
- 3 main components of acute inflammation
- 1.inc. vascular permeability 2.vasodilation 3.PMN emigration
- 3 main components of chronic inflammation
- 1.infiltration of mononuclear cells 2.tissue destruction 3.attempted repair
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