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Glossary of Tumors and Cancers

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What is hyperplasia?
increased number of cells
What is dysplasia?
abnormall proliferation of cells w/loss of size, shape, and orientation
What is metaplasia?
1 cell type is replaced by another adult cell type
Which classification has more to do with prognosis?
grade
What criteria are used for staging?
TMN, tumor size, metastases, node involvement
infection
invades and causes damage to cells in host; disrupts normal body function
adenoma
benign epithelial neoplasm, or a neoplasm derived from glands
sarcoma
malignant neoplasm, derived from mesenchymal tissue
carcinoma
malignant neoplasm derived from epithelial tissue
adenocarcinoma
carcinoma in which the lesion begins to grow in gland patterns
teratoma
consists of more than one germ layer;
well differentiated=benign,
not well differentiated=malignant
leiomyoma
benign; found in smooth muscle; often in uterine wall
lymphoma
malignant lymphocytic neoplasm
dysplasia
disorderly but non-neoplastic proliferation of cells
oncogenes
mutated forms of DNA, which no longer effectively regulate cell replication
properties of benign neoplasms
well differentiated; usually progressive and slow growth; mitotic figures are rare and normal; do not invade surrounding tissue; no metastases occurs
malignant neoplasms
lack of cell differentiation w/ anaplasia; erratic growth; mitotic figures numerous and abnormal; locally invasive; metastatic into other areas
3 classes of hereditary forms of cancer
1)inherited cancer syndromes(autosomal dominant)

2)familial cancers

3)defective dna repair(autosomal recessive)
tumor grade
based on level of differentiation and the # of mitoses
tumor stage
more important for prognosis; based on size of lesion and extent of spread
mononuclear inflammation is what type of response?
acute response to intracellular parasite
carbuncle
localized bacterial infect. of skin and subcutan. tissue; several openings discharging pus
furuncle
circumscribed pus-filled inflammation of skin and subcutaneous tissue often b/c of staph. infection
major clinical consequences of atherosclerosis
MI, cerebral infarction, aortic aneurysms, peripheral vascular disease, chronic ischemic heart disease
unchangeable risk factors for heart disease (3)
old age, male, genetics
changeable risk factors
hyperlipidemia, hypertension, smoking, diabetes
3 main components of acute inflammation
1.inc. vascular permeability 2.vasodilation 3.PMN emigration
3 main components of chronic inflammation
1.infiltration of mononuclear cells 2.tissue destruction 3.attempted repair

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