Glossary of Trypanosomatids
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- Name the 3 common trypanosomes.
- 1. African trypanosomes
2. American trypanosomes
- Name 3 features common to all trypanosomes.
- 1. Asexual reproduction
2. Single flagella and kinetoplast
3. Can live in water
- Name the 4 life cycle stages of trypanosomes. Where is each found - in the mammal host or vector?
- 1. Amastigote - mammal host
2. Promastigote - insect vector
3. Epimastigote - insect vector
4. Trypomastigote - mammal host
- Describe the flagella of the amastigote and trypomastigote.
- *amastigote is aflagellar
*trypomastigote has a flagella that stretches the length of the organism
- Where in the parasite is the kinetoplast located? How much of the organism's total DNA is contained here?
- What is unique about the DNA contained in the kinetoplast?
- The RNA transcribed from it does not code for protein.
- How many minicircles of DNA are contained in the kinetoplast? Describe its function.
*code for guide RNA that binds DNA produced by maxicircles and inserts uracil residues
- How many maxicircles of DNA are contained in the kinetoplast? Describe their function.
*code for mRNA that is edited and then yields proteins
- What is the vector for African trypanosomiasis? What feature of its reproduction makes it difficult to control with insecticide?
- *tsetse fly
*eggs hatch in uterus and fed with milk glands
*larva are deposited in soil and develop into pupae
- What are two differences between the East African and West African forms of African trypanosomiasis?
- 1. West has a human reservoir; East has an animal reservoir
2. West associated with chronic disease; East associated with acute disease
- Describe the 3 stages of disease in African trypanosomiasis.
- 1. Primary: swollen lymph nodes
2. Secondary: fever, wasting, systemic infection
3. Advanced: CNS penetration with lethargy, mental status changes, coma, death
- What is the periodicity of African trypanosomiasis? What causes this?
- *1-2 weeks
*complete antigenic turnover of parasites with renewed immune response
- How many new cases of African trypanosomiasis are seen each year?
- What is the causative agent of Chaga's disease?
- T. cruzi
- What cells does the amastigote form of T. cruzi inhabit? How is it able to live here?
- *macrophages (or muscle cells)
*escape the phagolysosome to reproduce in the cytoplasm
- What forms does T. cruzi adopt in human and animal reservoirs? In its vector?
- *Reservoir: amastigote, trypomastigote
*Vector: epimastigote, metacyclic, trypomastigote
- What is the vector of T. cruzi? How is the parasite transferred from its vector to a human host?
- *Reduviid beetle (a triatome)
*the beetle takes a blood meal and defecates at the site of penetration
- Describe the acute form of Chaga's disease. What are the symptoms of the chronic form?
- *acute: facial and eyelid swelling, parasitemia, fever
*chronic: occurs years after acquisition, chronic cardiomyopathy, megacolon, mega esophagus
- How is Chaga's disease currently diagnosed?
- Serology and immunological tests.
- What is the vector of Leishmaniasis?
- Sand fly
- What form does the Leishmaniasis parasite take in the human host? In in the insect vector?
- *host: amastigote
- Describe the pathogenesis of the leishmaniasis parasite in the human host.
- The parasite is taken up by macrophages and remain in the phagolysosome to reproduce until the cell eventually ruptures.
- How many people are infected by the cutaneous/mucocutaneous form of leishmaniasis each year? What are the symptoms of this form? Where is this form endemic?
- *1-1.5 million/year
*painless ulcer that heals into a hypopigmented scar
*South America and the Middle East
- How many people contract the visceral form of Leishmaniasis each year? What are the symptoms of this form?
*spread through the RES causes splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and bone marrow depression with associated cytopenia
- What are the two forms of visceral leishmaniasis? Which has an animal reservoir?
- *endemic: animal reservoir
*epidemic: no animal reservoir
- Name two patient populations that are particularly susceptible to severe disease with leishmaniasis infection.
- *malnourished peds
- Name the two strains of leishmaniasis. Is each strain specific for one disease form vs. the other?
- *dermatrophic and viscerotrophic
*each can cause either disease form
- Name 3 means of diagnosing leishmaniasis.
- 1. culture
3. skin test
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