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Glossary of Triangles of the Neck

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What are the superior boundaries of the neck?
Mandible, Mastoid process, Superior nuchal line, external occipital protuberance
What are the inferior boundaries of the neck?
Manubrium (clavicular notch), clavicle, acromion process of the scapula.
What comprises the anterior aspect of the neck at its midline?
Hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, thyroid notch, thyroid lamina, cricoid cartilage, tracheal cartilage,
What is the origin of the sternocleidomastoid muscle?
2 origins:
Clavicular medial 1/3rd
manubrium of the sternum
What is the insertion of the sternocleidomastoid muscle?
It inserts in the mastoid process of the temporal bone and superior nuchal line
What are the boundaries of the posterior triangle?
Sternocleidomastoid, trapezium, middle third of the clavicle.
What muscle divides the posterior triangle into two?
The inferior head of the omohyoid muscle
What is the posterior triangle divided into?
The occipital triangle and the supraclavicular triangle
What forms the floor of the posterior triangle?
Splenius capitis, levator scapulae, and the anterior middle and posterior scalene muscles.
What forms the roof of the posterior triangle?
Investing fascia (superficial layer of deep cervical fascia)
What nerves will you find in the posterior triangle?
Accessory Nerve (XI, the only structure passing through investing and prevertebral fascia), Brachial plexus (ventral primary rami of C5-C8, and T1), Cutaneous branches of the Cervical plexus, phrenic nerve, suprascapular nerve.
What veins and arteries are in the posterior triangle?
External jugular vein, subclavian vein, the third part of the subclavian artery, transverse cervical artery and suprascapular artery (both from the thyrocervical trunk), and the occipital artery (from the external carotid)
What are the boundaries of the anterior neck?
Midline, Sternocleidomastoid, and mandible
What four triangles can the anterior neck be divided into?
Submandibular (digastric) triangle, Submental triangle, Muscular triangle, Corotid triangle.
Which triangle of the anterior triangles is NOT bilateral?
The submental triangle
What are the boundaries of the submandibular triangle?
Anterior and posterior bellies of the digastric muscle, the mandible, with the floor being the mylohyoid muscle.
What are the contents of the submandibular triangle?
Submandibular gland lymph nodes and ganglion, lingual nerve, facial artery and vein, hypoglossal nerve.
What are the boundaries of the submental triangle?
anterior bellies of both digastric muscles, hyoid bone, The floor is the mylohyoid muscle
What do you find in the submental triangle?
The submental lymph nodes
What are the boundaries of the muscular triangle?
the median plane of the neck, the superior belly of the omohyoid muscle, and the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
What are the contents of the muscular triangle?
Infrahyoid muscles, the thyroid and parathyroid glands, carotid sheath and contents, Recurrent laryngeal nerves, thyroid and cricoid cartilages, the pharynx, esophagus, and trachea.
What are the boundaries of the carotid triangle?
Posterior belly of the digastric muscle, sternocleidomastoid muscle, superior belly of the omohyoid muscle.
What are the contents of the carotid triangle?
The carotid sheath and contents, the cervical sympathetic chain, hypoglossal nerve and superior root of ansa cervicalis, the external carotid artery and 5 of its branches
What are the contents of the carotid sheath?
The common and internal carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve.
What 3 layers do you pass through as you dissect from superficial to deep?
skin, subcutaneous fascia, investing fascia.
What is the only muscle found in the subcutaneous fascial layer?
The platysma muscle, a thin muscle of facial expression that is innervated by the cervical branch of VII
What muscle divides the antero-lateral neck into two triangle?
The sternocleidomastoid muscle
What triangles is the sternocleidomastoid muscle a boundary for?
The muscular, supraclavicular, occipital, and carotid
The middle third of the clavicle is a boundary for?
the posterior triangle and the supraclavicular (or subclavian) triangle
What two triangles have the superior belly of the omohyoid muscle as a boundary?
the muscular triangle and the carotid triangle
Which u-shaped bone forms a boundary of the submental triangle?
the hyoid bone
The prevertebral muscles and their encasin prevertebral fascia form the floor of which triangle?
the posterior triangle
The spinal accessory nerve is found obliquely traversing which triangle?
The occipital triangle
The bifurcation of the common carotid artery occurs in which triangle?
The carotid triangle
What cranial nerves can you access through the carotid triangle?
The vagus nerve (X) and hypoglossal nerve (XII)
What are the cutaneous nerves of the neck
Lesser occipital nerve (C2), the great auricular nerve (C2 and C3), the transverse cervical nerve (C2 and C3), and the supraclavicular nerve (C3 and C4)
What are the three layers of deep fascia?
The investing layer, pretracheal, and prevertebral
(also contains the carotid sheath)
What are the inferior attachments of the investing fascia?
manubrium, superior border clavicle, acromion, spine scapula
What are the superior attachments of the investing fascia?
The superior nuchal line, zygomatic arches, angle mandible, mastoid process, spinous processes of cervical vertebrae
What are the functions of the investing fascia?
splits to enclose the SCM and trapezius muscles, encloses parotid and submandibular glands, forms the roof of the anterior and posterior triangles of the neck
Where is the pretracheal fascia?
Only in the anterior neck from hyoid bone to fibrous pericardium
The pretracheal fascia and its visceral layer invest?
Infrahyoid muscles. The visceral layer invests trachea, thyroid and parathyroid glands, esophagus
What are the attachments of the pretracheal fascia?
Attaches inferiorly to adventitia of great vessels, and superiorly to thyroid cartilage and buccopharyngeal fascia of pharynx.
What does the pretracheal fascia blend with laterally?
The carotid sheath.
What does the prevertebral fascia act as a sheath for?
The C1-T3 vertebrae and their associated muscles.
What are the muscles associated with the C1-T3 vertebrae
Longus colli and capitis, anterior middle and posterior scalenes, deep cervical muscles
What are the two laminae of the prevertebral fascia and what is their superior attachment?
Anterior and Posterior attach superiorly to the base of the skull
What are the inferior attachments of the anterior laminae of the prevertebral fascia?
The anterior longitudinal ligament and the posterior esophagus
What are the inferior attachments of the posterior laminae of the prevertebral fascia
The fascia over the thoracic vertebral column.
What is the lateral extension of the prevertebral fascia?
It extends laterally as axillary sheath around axillary artery and brachial plexus.
What is the carotid sheath?
It is a condensation of fascia around the great vessels of the neck.
What does the carotid sheath contain?
The common carotid artery, internal carotid artery, internal jugular vein, Vagus nerve, deep cervical lymph nodes, and sympathetic fibers.
What nerves innervate the carotid sinus and carotid body?
the IX, and the X innervate the carotid body. The carotid sinus is only innervated by IX
What does the Carotid Body do?
It monitors the levels of CO2 and O2 in the body.

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