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Glossary of Totora Microbiology Metabolism Worksheet

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Indicate whether the following reactions are ANABOLIC or CATABOLIC, A + B -> AB
ANABOLIC
Indicate whether the following reactions are ANABOLIC or CATABOLIC, AB -> A + B
CATABOLIC
Indicate whether the following reactions are ANABOLIC or CATABOLIC, Starch -> Glucose
CATABOLIC
Indicate whether the following reactions are ANABOLIC or CATABOLIC, Amino Acids -> Proteins
ANABOLIC
Indicate whether the following reactions are ANABOLIC or CATABOLIC, Triglycerides -> Glycerol and 3 Fatty Acids
CATABOLIC
Indicate whether the following reactions are ANABOLIC or CATABOLIC, Gulcose -> Glycogen
ANABOLIC
Define all synthesis reactions in a living organism; the building of complex organic molecules from simpler ones
ANABOLISM
Define all decomposition reactions in a living organism; the breakdown of complex organic compounds into simpler ones.
CATABOLISM
The sum of all the chemical reactions that occur in a living cell.
Metabolism
The substance that specific enzymes can react with
Substrate
A crevice where substrate binds to an enzyme during reaction
Active Site
An energy requiring process
Anabolism
Process where energy is released
Catabolism
The interaction between a substrate molecule and the active site of an enzyme, which changes shape slightly to embrace the substrate and catalyze the reaction
Induced fit
Fills the active site of an enzymen and competes with the normal substrate for the active site
Competitive Inhibition
When a noncompetitive inhibitor attaches to another part of the enzyme this is called the?
Allosteric Site
Allosteric inhibitors play a role in a kind of biochemical control called?
Feedback inhibition
When a series of enzymes makes an end product that inhibits the first enzyme in the series, thus shutting down the entire pathway when sufficient end-product has been made.
Feedback inhibition
A transcripitional control in anabolic pathway that blocks synthesis of enzymes when end products accumulate
Enzyme repression
A transcripitional control in catabolic pathway when enzymes are produced only when their substrates are present
Enzyme Induction
Non protein groups that bind to many enzymes and make them more reactive known as "helpers"
Cofactor substrates
Large organic molecules that act to transfer functional groups, protons, or electrons from one substrate to another
Co enzymes
The protein portion of an enzyme, can not function without the "help" of a co enzyme
Apoenzyme
The conbination of a co enzyme and an apoenzyme, a functional complex
Holoenzyme
Removal of electrons from a substance
Oxidation
Addition of electrons to a substance
Reduction
Indicate whether the compound below is in its OXIDIZED or REDUCED state, NAD+
Oxidized
Indicate whether the compound below is in its OXIDIZED or REDUCED state, FADH2
Reduced
Indicate whether the compound below is in its OXIDIZED or REDUCED state, NADH
Reduced
Indicate whether the compound below is in its OXIDIZED or REDUCED state, FAD
Oxidized
What produces ATP by chemiosmosis?
Electron Transport Chain
What forms pyruvate?
Glycolysis
What produces carbon dioxide as a waste product?
TCA Cycle
What can take place in the presence or absence of oxygen?
Glycolysis
What take place on the bacterial cell membrane?
Electron Transport Chain
What takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell?
Glycolysis and TCA Cycle
What produces ATP by substrate level phosphorylation?
Glycolysis and TCA Cycle
What makes use of compounds known as cytochromes?
Electron Transport Chain
What uses oxygen directly?
Electron Transport Chain
What is responsible for the complete oxidation of pyruvate?
TCA Cycle
How many ATP molecules must be invested to begin the process of glycolysis?
2
How many ATP molecules are gained (net) in the coversion of one molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate?
2
How many ATP molecules are formed/glucose during the TCA cycle?
15 per pyruvate
How many ATP molecules are produced via the Electron Transport Chain in the processing of one FADH2 molceule?
2
How many ATP molecules are produced via the Electron Transport Chain in the processing of one NADH molecule?
3
How many ATP molecules are formed by bacterial cells carrying out aerobic respiration?
38
How many ATP molecules are formed by bacterial cells carrying out fermentation?
2/per glucose
How many carbon atoms are present in Glucose?
6
How many carbon atoms are present in Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G-3-P)?
3
How many carbon atoms are present in Pyruvate?
3
How many carbon atoms are present in The Acetyl group carried by Coenzyme A?
2
How many carbon atoms are present in Oxaloacetate?
4
How many carbon atoms are present in Citrate?
6
How many carbon atoms are present in Ethanol?
2
How many carbon atoms are present in Lactic Acid?
3
How is ATP produced by Substrate Level Phosphorylation?
A Mechanism of ATP synthesis in which a high energy phosphate group is directly transferred from an intermediate in the pathway to ADP to make ATP
How is ATP produced by Oxidative Phosphorylation (Chemiosmosis)?
3 steps 1 e- flow thru ETC 2 A proton gradient is established 3 H+ diffuse thru an ATP synthase
List two ways in which Anaerobic Respiration differs from Aerobic Respiration
1 in Anaerobic something other than oxygen is the final electron acceptor 2 Anaerobic (Less than 38 but more than 2) does not produce as much ATP as Aerobic (36 or 38)
List two ways in which Anaerobic Respiration differs from Fermentation
Fermentation only produces 2 ATP while Anaerobic produces less than 38 but more than 2, and Fermentation can happen under either Aerobic or anaerobic conditions, while Anaerobic can only happen under Anaerobic conditions
major production of atp during aerobic cellular respiration occurs when electron from _____ and _______ are transferred to ______.
NADH, FADH2, OXYGEN
OF THE THREE STAGES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION, WHICH OCCURS IN THE CYTOSOL, OUTSIDE MITOCHONDRIA?
GLYCOLYSIS
OF THE THREE MAIN STAGES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION, WHICH ONE USES OXYGEN DIRECTLY TO EXTRACT CHEMICAL ENERGY FROM ORGANIC COMPOUNDS?
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
LIFE WITHOUT FERMENTATION?
WED HAVE NO:
CHEESE
YOGURT
BREAD
WINE, BEER, RUM



HOW MANY MOLECULES OF ATP ARE GENERATED PER MOLECULE OF GLUCOSE DURING FERMENTATION? HOW MANY CAN BE GENERATED DURING CELLULAR RESPIRATION?
2, 36
______ IS PRODUCED IN HUMAN MUSCLES CELLS DURING FERMENTATION AND ______ IS TO YEAST.
LACTIC ACID, ALCOHOL
WHICH TAKES PLACE IN THE INNER MEMBRANE OF THE MITOCHONRION?
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
WHICH ARE INVOLVED IN AEROBIC RESPIRATION?
ETC, TCA, GLYCOLYSIS
WHICH CONVERTS PYRUVATE TO A SUBSTANCE OTHER THAN ACETYL COA?
FERMENTATION
WHICH TAKES PLACE IN THE MITOCHONRION MATRIX?
KREBS CYCLE
LACTIC ACID - PURPOSE AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXAMPLE?
MUSCLE CELLS USE FERMENTATION FOR A QUICK BURST OF ENERGY. WHEN ELECTRONS ARE RELEASED DURING GLYCOLYSIS AND ARE PASSED TO PYRUVIC ACID TO FORM TWO MOLECULES OF LACTIC ACID.
WHICH IS MOST CONCENTRATED FORM OF ENERGY AND RESULTS IN THE MOST ATP/GRAM WHEN CATABOLIZED?
CARBOHYDRATE
WHICH IS PREFERRED BY MOST CELLS OF THE BODY AND RELEASES THE LEAST HARMFUL BYPRODUCTS OF METABOLISM?
PROTEIN
WHICH IS CATABOLYZED FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ATP ONLY AS A LAST RESORT?
PROTEIN
WHICH IS STORED AS A GLYCOGEN IS INGESTED IN EXCESS?
LIPID
NADP+ IS REDUCED
NONCYCLIC PATHWAY ONLY
USES PHOTO SYSTEM 1 ONLY
CYCLIC PATHWAY ONLY
INVOLVES CARBON FIXATION
CALVIN CYCLE
PRODUCES ATP
BOTH CYCLIC AND NON CYCLIC PATHWAY
INVOLVES PHOTOLYSIS
NONCYCLIC PATHWAY
OCCURS IN THE STROMA
CALVIN CYCLE
PHOTSYSTEM 2 AND 1 REACTION
NONCYCLIC PATHWAY
TWO ETS #
NONCYCLIC PATHWAY
ONE # OF ETS
CYCLIC PATHWAY
CHEMICAL ENERGY: 6 ATP, 6 NADPH
NONCYCLIC PATHWAY
3 ATP CHEMICAL ENERGY
CYCLIC PATHWAY
LIGHT REACTANT
CYCLIC PATHWAY
CELLULAR LOCATION: THYKALOID MEMBRANE
NON AND CYCLIC PATHWAY
CALVIN CYCLE REACTANT
9 ATP, 6 NADPH, 3 CO2, RUBISCO
CALVIN CYCLE PRODUCTS
2-3 PHYPHOGLERCATE ,
G3P
CALVIN CYCLE CHEMICAL ENERGY
ADP, NADPT
RIBULOSE BIPHOSPHATE ACTS AS AN ACCEPTOR
CALVIN CYCLE
BREAKDOWN OF ORGANIC MOLECULES IS?
EXERGONIC
THIS RELEASED ENERGY IS ULTIMATELY USED TO SYNTHENSIZE ATP?
FERMENTATION
ELECTRON DONOR IS CALLED
REDUCING AGENT
ELECTRON RECEPTOR IS CALLED
OXIDIZING AGENT
GLUCOSE IS ALWAYS OXIDIZED TO _____
CARBON DIOXIDE
OXYGEN IS ALWAYS REDUCED TO _____
WATER MOLECULE
ACCOUNTS MOST FOR ATP SYNTHESIS
OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
ETC AND CHEMIOIOSIS
PROTON MOTIVE FORCE
H+ GRADIENT
CELLULAR RESPIRATION PROCESS:
GLUCOSE-NADH-ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN- PROTON MOTIVE FORCE- ATP

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