Glossary of Thinking and Language Chapter 9

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the way in which information is processed and manipulated in remembering, thinking, and knowing
arfitical intelligence
the science of creating machines capable of performing activities that require intelligence when the are done by people
manipulating information as when we form concepts, solve problems, think critically, reason, and make decisions
mental categories that are used to group objects, events, and characteristics
classical model
states that all instances of a concept share defining properties
prototype model
peope decide whether an item reflects a concept by comparing it with the most typical items of that concepts that they know about
problem solving
an attempt to find an approprate way of attaining a goal when the goal is not readily avaliable
inolves setting intermediate goals or defining intermediate problems that put you in a better position to reac the final goal or solution
stategies that guarentee a solution to a problem
strategies or guidelines that suggest, but do not guarentee a solution to a problem
involves using a prior problem solving stategy and failing to look at a problem from a new perspective
functional fixedness
a type of fixation in which individuals fail to solve a problem becuase they are too fixated on a things usual functions
mental set
a type ot fixation in which an individual tries to solve a problem in a particular way that had worked in the past
the mental activity of transforming to reach conclusions
inductive reasoning
reasoning from the specific to the general
deductive reasoning
reasoning from the general to the specific
decision making
invlves evaluating alternatives and making choices among them
confimation bias
the tendencey to search for and use informaiton that supports, rather than refutes our ideas
belief perservarance
the tendency to hold on to a belief in the face of contradictory evidence
overconfidence bias
the tendency to have more confidence in judgements and decisions that we should based on probability or past occurance
hingsight bias
the tendency to falsely report, after the fact, that we accurately predicted an event.
availability heuristic
a prediction about the probability of an event based on the frequency of the events past occurances
representativeness heuristic
making faulty decisions based on how well something matches a prototype- the common or representative example- rather than on its relevance to the particular situation
a form of communication whether spoken, written, or signed that is based on a system of symbols
infinite generaltivity
the ability to profuce an infinite number or sentences using a finite set of words and rules
a languages second sound system
a languages rule for word formation
a languages rules for the way words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences
the meaning of words and sentences in a particular language
basic-skill-and- phonetics approach
stresses that reading instruction should emphasize the basic rules for translating wtitten patterns and sounds
whole- language approach
stresses that reading instruction should parallel a childs natual language leaning: so reading materials should be whole and meaningful

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